Central Retinal Artery Occlusion after Rhinoplasty Surgery: A Case Report and Literature ReviewRead the full article
Case Reports in Ophthalmological Medicine publishes case reports and case series related to the anatomy, physiology and diseases of the eye.
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The Role of Early Vitrectomy in the Healing of Retinal Lesions in Progressive Outer Retinal Necrosis
Purpose. To report on the efficacy of early pars plana vitrectomy (PPV), silicone oil (SO) tamponade, and intravitreal ganciclovir injection in the treatment of a case with progressive outer retinal necrosis (PORN). Case Presentation. A 33-year-old man with a history of shingles on the chest skin 2.5 months ago presented with progressive vision loss in both eyes over the past 20 days. Fundus examination revealed retinal necrosis with perivascular clearance. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection was confirmed by western blot analysis. Treatment with intravenous acyclovir and intravitreal ganciclovir injections was unable to stop the progression of retinitis. Along with highly active antiretroviral therapy, the patient underwent PPV with SO tamponade and intravitreal ganciclovir injection in both eyes. A few days after surgery, retinal lesions started to improve. Conclusion. Early PPV, SO tamponade, and intravitreal ganciclovir injection may be considered an effective intervention in PORN patients with an unfavorable response to medical treatment.
Merkel Cell Carcinoma of the Left Eyelid with Metastasis to the Left Submandibular Lymph Nodes: A Case Report and Brief Review
Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a cutaneous cancer often found on sun-exposed areas. MCC is rare but very often lethal making early diagnosis challenging although critical. There are only a few cases that have reported MCC of the eyelid making it often hard to identify in clinic. A 52-year-old woman with a firm nodule on the left eyelid was diagnosed with MCC that had also metastasized to a left submandibular lymph node. She underwent surgical excision of the mass and lymph node as well as parotid gland and neck dissection to rule out other metastases and then underwent radiation therapy. The aim of this study is to report a case of eyelid MCC with metastasis to a local lymph node to provide another example of the rare cancer in hopes that diagnosis and treatment options for MCC are more thoroughly studied and understood.
Primary Lymphoepithelioma-Like Carcinoma of the Conjunctiva Metastatic to Regional Lymph Nodes and Parotid Gland in a Mexican Patient
Lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma (LELC) of the conjunctiva is a rare malignancy in the ocular adnexa. There are no prospective data regarding treatment methods. Complete surgical excision is sufficient in the majority of cases. Radiation therapy is sometimes used in case of recurrence or positive margins after surgery. This case describes an 89-year-old Hispanic female with a 7-month history tumor primarily located on the left lower palpebral conjunctiva. The patient underwent an excisional biopsy of the tumor, and histopathology exam reported an LELC with positive margins. She developed parotid and neck lymph node metastasis treated with concurrent radiotherapy. The patient had remained disease-free for 3 years. According to the available data, there are only five cases of LELC reported in conjunctiva worldwide, so this report increases the differential diagnoses of tumors in the ocular adnexa and supports the effectiveness of radiotherapy.
The New Face of the Switch Flap in the Reconstruction of a Large Upper Eyelid Defect
Reconstruction of a large defect after the removal of a massive malignant upper lid tumor is still a challenge in oculoplastic surgery. Our method of choice is Mustardé switch flap. Due to the lack of Mohs micrographic surgery and frozen section technique as well as waiting time of two weeks for histopathological results, we made modifications enabling us to reexcise in case of positive margins: the width of the pedicle of the flap was 7 mm allowing the length of the flap to be increased if needed, the lids were closed with temporary lateral tarsorrhaphy to protect the eye, and the lower lid is finally reconstructed in the second stage of the procedure. In three patients with malignant upper lid tumors, this method of reconstruction proved to be safe and effective with favorable long-term results.
Retinal Surface Macrophage Changes in Thyroid Eye Disease before and after Treatment with Teprotumumab
Retinal surface macrophages play key roles in the regulation of immune response, maintenance of vitreous clarity, and tissue repair. We examined the variation of parafoveal surface macrophages in a thyroid eye disease (TED) patient before and after treatment with teprotumumab (Tepezza, Horizon therapeutics). Pre- and posttreatment parafoveal surface macrophages were imaged using clinical en face OCT, and their density was assessed using a novel cell density mapping technique. Pretreatment, surface macrophage cell density was high. Macrophages had a nonuniform spatial distribution, and their appearance was round with few protrusions, consistent with an “activated” state. Posttreatment, cell density decreased. The macrophages were regularly spaced and had a ramified appearance and filopodia-like processes, consistent with a “quiescent” state. Surface macrophage density decreased as the Clinical Activity Score (CAS) decreased with teprotumumab treatment, suggesting a potential association of these cells with an underlying intraocular and retinal inflammatory process previously not described in TED.
Contralateral Effect following Intravitreal Brolucizumab Injection in Diabetic Macular Edema
The authors describe a novel case of a 48-year-old male with bilateral diabetic macular edema (DME) who underwent intravitreal injection (IVI) of brolucizumab in the left eye. At four weeks, the patient demonstrated a bilateral response by way of improvement in the best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and reduction in the central macular thickness (CMT) in both eyes. Further studies on the ocular and systemic assays of the brolucizumab molecule are warranted to evaluate its systemic escape and to better understand the pharmacokinetics behind the bilateral effect.