Solid Organ Transplant Graft-Versus-Host Disease in a Kidney/Pancreas Transplant Patient: Use of Chimerism Testing and a Rare Presentation of Cutaneous GVHDRead the full article
Case Reports in Transplantation publishes case reports and case series focusing on novel techniques as well as associated side effects and complications of heart, lung, kidney, liver, pancreas and stem cell transplantation.
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A Novel Technique Using Fluorescent Ureteral Catheter and Flexible Ureteroscope for Safe Laparoscopic Fenestration of Lymphocele after Kidney Transplantation
Laparoscopic fenestration of a postrenal transplant lymphocele is associated with a risk of renal hilar vessel and ureteral injury. Consequently, determination of the incision line is difficult. We describe a case of a 73-year-old man with postrenal transplant lymphocele who underwent a laparoscopic fenestration. We report a surgical video containing a new technique of laparoscopic fenestration using a fluorescent ureteral catheter in combination with a flexible ureteroscope. The combination of a fluorescent ureteral catheter and flexible ureteroscope during surgery enabled us to determine the incision line safely and accurately. Intraoperative real-time visualization of the lymphocele and ureter using a fluorescent ureteral catheter and a flexible ureteroscope is safer than conventional methods for laparoscopic fenestration. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of this novel technique.
Lung Transplantation following Emergency Pneumonectomy in a Polytraumatized 18-Year-Old
Introduction. On rare occasions, a pneumonectomy needs to be performed after a severe polytrauma. Statistically, this procedure increases the mortality rate to 50%. One option to reduce this high rate could be an organ transplantation if a matching organ can be found. However, the current literature lacks any documentation of such a case. One reason for this stems from the fact that regulations for organ transplantation are very restricted and rarely allow exceptions. In addition, the chance for survival of polytraumatized patients in need of organs in the acute phase of the therapy is often quite unsure. Case Presentation. In this paper, we present the case of an 18-year-old patient who was involved in a serious motorcycle accident. His injury severity score was 29, but he suffered from severe bleeding in his lung which made a pneumonectomy necessary. The procedure led to a severe deterioration of his overall condition. An ECMO therapy was initiated, which effectively only slowed the aggravation. Therefore, he was transferred to our clinic where he was stabilized temporarily. A few days later, his situation turned worse. Since he had no other chance of survival, he was scheduled for a lung transplantation and was assigned an organ. After the transplantation, he stabilized quickly and recovered almost completely. Discussion. In this report, we want to show that an exception to the rules for organ transplantation might make sense on rare occasions. However, to increase the chance for any success, patients must be transferred to highly specialized clinics capable of treating patients with severe conditions. This might be the only chance for those patients to survive.
Acute Liver Failure Requiring Liver Transplantation due to Acute Hepatitis A Virus Infection
Introduction. Hepatitis A infection (HAV) is generally characterized by an acute icteric illness or may have a subclinical self-limited course, although rarely, can result in fulminant hepatitis and death. In 2019, the City of Philadelphia declared a public health emergency due to an HAV outbreak. We are reporting a series of four cases of acute liver failure (ALF) requiring liver transplantation (LT) due to acute HAV. Methods. Chart review and case descriptions of four patients with acute HAV-related ALF who were expeditiously evaluated, listed as Status 1A, and who underwent LT between August 2019 and October 2019 at Thomas Jefferson University Hospital. Results. All four patients presented with acute hepatocellular jaundice and had a positive HAV IgM, and all other causes of ALF were excluded. All four cases met the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases (AASLD) criteria for ALF. Three of the four cases met King’s College Criteria of poor prognosis for nonacetaminophen-induced ALF. All four patients underwent successful LT and were discharged six to twelve days postoperatively. One patient died of disseminated Aspergillus infection five months after LT, while the others have had excellent clinical outcomes shown by one-year follow-ups. All four explants had remarkably similar histological changes, revealing acute hepatitis with massive necrosis accompanied by a prominent lymphoplasmacytic inflammatory infiltrate and bile ductular proliferation. Conclusion. Although rare, patients presenting with acute HAV need close monitoring as they may rapidly progress to ALF. Early referral to a transplant center afforded timely access to LT and yielded overall good one-year survival. Widespread HAV vaccination for high-risk individuals is an essential strategy for preventing disease and curbing such future outbreaks.
Successful Antiviral Treatment with Direct-Acting Antivirals for Hepatitis C Virus Infection during Peritransplant Period in a Kidney Transplant Recipient
Introduction. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection continues to represent a poor prognostic factor in kidney transplant (KTx) patients. New direct-acting antiviral agents (DAA) have dramatically changed the therapy management for HCV, showing promising results in terms of sustained virologic response. Timing for DAA therapy in HCV positive kidney waitlist patients continues to be controversial, and caution is recommended due to the potential difficult immunosuppressant dose adjustments, particularly in the early posttransplant period. We report a case of a KTx performed during antiviral DAA therapy. Report of Case. Patient was a 44-year-old man suffering from chronic HCV hepatitis associated with end-stage kidney disease (ESRD), waitlisted for a second KTx as a sensitized patient (panel-reactive antibody peak 85%) in March 2019. Four months later, antiviral DAA therapy was started (glecaprevir/pibrentasvir 300 mg/120 mg daily, for 8 weeks). After 30 days, a left kidney was offered and, given the good compatibility, we decided to proceed with KTx without discontinuing the DAA therapy. A standard straightforward kidney transplant was performed. Immunosuppression included thymoglobulin and prednisone for induction and tacrolimus and mycophenolate for maintenance. After a transient delay graft function, creatinine levels progressively decreased. From postoperative day 3, tacrolimus reached target levels and remained stable. No episodes of acute rejection occurred. The 8-week DAA therapy was carried out without interruption. All HCV-RNA level controls resulted undetectable. On postoperative day 15, the patient was discharged and remains in healthy condition with normal renal function and HCV negative after 18 months of follow-up. Discussion. In this case, DAA therapy during the perioperative KTx period was well tolerated and effective. If confirmed, patients should not necessarily be suspended from the waiting list during DAA therapy for HCV eradication.
Successful Treatment of Invasive Mucormycosis in Orthotopic Liver Transplant Population
Mucormycosis is caused by ubiquitous fungi and encompasses a variety of different opportunistic syndromes in humans that disproportionately affect immunocompromised patients. Mortality has been documented to range between 50 and 100%; however, location of infection greatly dictates likelihood of survival. Treatment of mucormycosis involves aggressive surgical intervention and combination therapy of antifungal agents. In solid organ transplant recipients, immunosuppressive agents used to prevent rejection of the transplanted organ pose additional obstacles in the treatment of invasive fungal infections. We report on 3 high models for end-stage liver disease (MELD-Na) score orthotopic liver transplant (OLT) recipients who all were diagnosed with Rhizopus spp. infections with positive, 1-year outcomes after aggressive, individualized treatment.
Treatment of Acute Graft-versus-Host Disease in Liver Transplant Recipients
Acute graft-versus-host disease (aGvHD) is a rare complication of liver transplantation associated with high morbidity and mortality. Death typically occurs due to complications related to severe infection, shock, and multiorgan failure. The clinical presentation involves dysfunction of multiple organ systems with overlapping symptoms that often results in a diagnostic delay. As there are a limited number of cases reported in the literature, there are no clear guidelines for treatment. Many different therapeutic measures have been utilized that target various immune system pathways, but steroids remain the first line of therapy. We report on two patients who developed aGvHD after liver transplantation who were treated with ruxolitinib, a novel Janus kinase 1/2 (JAK) inhibitor that has been shown to improve outcomes in steroid refractory cases of aGvHD after allogenic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. We reviewed the literature to discuss various therapeutic options currently available for aGvHD after liver transplantation.