Article of the Year 2020
Organic Compounds: Contents and Their Role in Improving Seed Germination and Protocorm Development in OrchidsRead the full article
International Journal of Agronomy publishes research focused on crop production and management, crop science and physiology, crop disease and protection, and agroclimatology and soil science.
Chief Editor, Dr. Othmane Merah, is an Associate Professor at the University of Toulouse Paul Sabatier, France.
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Genetic Variability, Correlation, and Path Analysis of Thai Commercial Melon Varieties
In the selection phase of melon breeding programs, genetic variability is a critical component for yield improvement. The goals of this study were to discover the variables that affect melon fruit weight and examine genetic variability, correlation, and path analysis of eight melon varieties. The experiment was arranged as a completely randomized block design with 4 blocks. It was conducted between July and September 2021 at the School of Agricultural Technology, Walailak University, Nakhon Si Thammarat, Thailand. The result found that stem diameter and length, leaf length, width, number, and chlorophyll, day to 50% male and female flowering, and fruit perimeter, height, and weight were highly significant across the varieties. The genotypic coefficients of variation (GCV) of observed variables were all lower than phenotypic coefficients of variation (PCV). Fruit weight (15.462 and 19.865%) had the highest GCV and PCV. High broad-sense heritability was linked to high (H) or moderate (M) genetic advance as a percentage of the mean from stem length (67.606%: H and 21.992%: H), fruit weight (60.586%: H and 24.793%: H), fruit perimeter (76.395%: H and 12.258%: M), and fruit height (69.828%: H and 12.122%: M). The maximum and significant genotypic correlation value was obtained between leaf length and leaf width (r = 1.000). Fruit weight is positively correlated with fruit perimeter (r = 0.940) and fruit height (r = 0.831). According to correlation and path analyses, stem diameter and length, leaf chlorophyll, and fruit perimeter and height were considered variables for fruit weight improvement in the breeding programs. It suggests that the increase in traits with a favorable direct influence on fruit weight may directly contribute to fruit weight.
Effect of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi (AMF) and Rhizobium Inoculation on Growth and Yield of Glycine max L. Varieties
Biofertilizers are preparations containing living cells that help crop plants in the uptake of nutrients. This study aimed to investigate the effect of coinoculation of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and Rhizobium species on the growth and nutrient uptake of three varieties of Glycine max: Belsa 95, Afgat M5, and Nova E3, in the greenhouse and the field. These varieties were obtained from the Gambela research center of Ethiopia. Commercial Rhizobium inoculants were obtained from the Menagesha Biotechnology Institute (MBI), and the previously isolated indigenous AMF inoculants were mass-produced using Sorghum bicolor as a trap plant. Two kilograms of sterilized soil and sand in a 2:1 ratio were used for greenhouse treatments, and 2 m × 3 m plots were used for field treatments. In the greenhouse trials, for all the three varieties was recorded better yield plant−1 in coinoculated treatments with fertilizer application and without fertilizer application, respectively. The highest root number plant−1 (10.0 ± 1.2 and 10.0 ± 1.7) was recorded for variety 1 with the application of only fertilizer and fertilizer + Rhizobium, respectively, and the highest values (8.7 ± 1.9 and 4.7 ± 0.8) were recorded for coinoculated treatments with fertilizer application for varieties 2 and 3, respectively. For sole mycorrhiza-inoculated treatments in the greenhouse was recorded higher dry biomass (16.67% for V1, 42.20% for V2, and 22.18% for V3) as compared with the control. Moreover, for combined inoculation of AMF + Rhizobium and AMF + Rhizobium + fertilizer were recorded 27.01% and 66.99% for V1, 42.20% and 70.33% for V2, and 36.84 and 80.20% for V3, respectively. That means tripartite interactions favor the growth response in association with higher P and N uptake. Finally, it is recommended to apply biofertilizers as the plant-fungi-Rhizobium interactions may have a bigger potential role in maintaining sustainable agriculture with effective environmental resilience.
Effect of Sorghum Mulches on Emergence and Seedling Growth of Beggarticks, Goose Grass, and Sesame
Rotation of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) with sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) in drought prone areas of Zimbabwe has raised concerns on whether these two crops are compatible in the rotational system. This is because sorghum is known to exhibit strong allelopathic effects on both crop and weed species. A greenhouse experiment was conducted to assess the effect of soil incorporated sorghum residues on the emergence and seedling growth of sesame and weeds. The emergence and early seedling growth of sesame and the weed significantly increased with increases in the amount of soil incorporated sorghum residues. Incorporating 27.7 g of the ground sorghum herbage caused a stimulatory effect on the emergence and early seedling growth of the test species. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry revealed the presence of 6 probable allelochemicals in sorghum residues, namely, 4-methylaminobutyrate, C16 sphinganine, oleamide, tauroursdeoxycholic acid, pisatin, and anhalonidine. From this study, it can be concluded that dry sorghum residues do not have an inhibitory effect on sesame emergence and growth at mulch rates that retard emergence and growth of weeds.
Changes on Sugar and Starch Contents during Seed Development of Synergistic Sweet Corn and Implication on Seed Quality
Synergistic sweet corn equipped with multiple-recessive genes encoding sugar synthesis is proposed through hybrid breeding to improve the balance eating quality including flavor, texture, and aroma. However, the drawback on seed quality occurs such as low germination and poor seedling vigor. This study aimed to investigate the changes of carbohydrate contents on seed quality of five sweet corn genotypes differing in the number of equipped recessive genes during seed development. Seeds were sampled at 4-day intervals from 18 to 46 days after pollination (DAP) and analyzed for seed germination, sugar, water-soluble polysaccharide, and starch. Then, their relationships were analyzed by using time series regression analysis. Although there were significant differences among 5 corn genotypes in their seed germination and carbohydrate contents, some genotypes showed responses in similar patterns. The optimal time to harvest seeds was genotype-dependent, which were 38 DAP for triple-recessive gene (btbtsh2sh2wxwx) and single-recessive genes (BtBtsh2sh2WxWx and Sh2Sh2susuWxWx) and 42 DAP for double-recessive genes (BtBtsh2sh2wxwx). The regression analysis revealed that seed germinability could be predicted by total starch content in synergistic sweet corn lines during seed development stages; however, this prediction seemed to be negligible in sweet corn genotypes equipped with a single-recessive gene. Implications and further suggestions for establishing an effective seed production technique and seed quality of synergistic sweet corn are discussed.
Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Yield and Yield Components as Influenced by Herbicide Application in Kaffa Zone, Southwestern Ethiopia
In order to identify the effect of herbicidal weed control practices on yield components and yield of wheat, the study was conducted at Kocha kebele in Chena district of Kaffa zone, Southwestern Ethiopia. 2,4-D amine salt (0.5 kg ha−1, 1 kg ha−1, and 1.5 kg ha−1) supplemented with one hand weeding 30 days after chemical application, clodinafop-propargyl 6% + fluroxypyr 12% (0.5 kg ha−1, 0.75 kg ha−1, and 1 kg ha−1) supplemented with one hand weeding 30 days after chemical application, pyroxsulam (0.4 kg ha−1, 0.5 kg ha−1, and 0.6 kg ha−1) supplemented with one hand weeding 30 days after chemical application, 2,4-D amine salt at 1 kg ha−1, clodinafop-propargyl 6% + fluroxypyr 12% at 0.75 kg ha−1, pyroxsulam at 0.5 kg ha−1, two hand weeding 30 and 45 days after crop emergence, weed-free check, and weedy check (unweeded) were the weed control treatments. Fifteen treatments were used for the trial and arranged in a randomized complete block design with three replications. The treatments had a significant effect on weed community, dry matter of weeds, parameters on weed control, phenology and growth parameters, and yield components and yield of wheat. The minimum total weed dry biomass was recorded in plots treated with clodinafop-propargyl 6% + fluroxypyr 12% at 1 kg ha−1 + one hand weeding at crop harvest. The highest weed control efficiency (93.30%) and herbicide efficiency index (27.06%) and the lowest weed index (14.18%) were recorded with the application of clodinafop-propargyl 6% + fluroxypyr 12% at 1 kg ha−1 + one hand weeding. Higher number of grains per spike (57.9), 1000-grain weight (39.4 g ha−1), grain yield (3635.6 kg ha−1), biological yield (9004 kgha−1), and harvest index (40.23%) were recorded with the application of clodinafop-propargyl 6% + fluroxypyr 12% at 1 kg ha−1 + one hand weeding 30 days after chemical application, next to weed-free check. Managing weeds with the application of clodinafop-propargyl 6% + fluroxypyr 12% at 1 kg ha−1 + one hand weeding contributed maximum (50,745.2 ETB) net benefit. The application of clodinafop-propargyl 6% + fluroxypyr 12% at1.0 kg ha−1 plus one hand weeding can be recommended to acquire high grain yield of wheat and high economic return in the study site.
Influence of Treated Wastewater on the Percentage of Protein Content during Fodder Intercropping
This study aims to explore the potential use of treated wastewater in irrigating fodder crops and its effects on protein contents. A comparison of the protein contents in intercropped fodder plants irrigated with fresh water, and rainfall water, against those irrigated with treated grey water was performed under Palestinian climate conditions. Field experiments with different intercropping mixing ratios were carried out in 2017–2019 at the National Agricultural Research Centre in Palestine (NARC). Measurements of the nutritional value of each mixture specifically the protein contents were carried out to get the optimal and best conditions for preparing animal feed crops with three different water sources used. For alfalfa with vetch, the best result for protein percentages was (on average) obtained from the rain-fed experiment (17.1% protein) followed by the freshwater experiment (12.9% protein) and then by the treated grey-water experiment (12.6% protein). It appears that the best result for alfalfa with barley for protein percentages was (on average) obtained from the treated grey-water experiment (13.0% protein) followed by the freshwater experiment (11.1% protein) and then by the rain-fed experiment (10.5% protein). Statistical analysis of the data showed that percent protein for each specific mixing ratio resulted in significant differences in the protein % for the those irrigated with fresh water compared with the other types of water. The highest protein % was found to be for that irrigated with fresh water (31.9 for 10/90 alfalfa/barley ratio) followed by that irrigated with treated grey water (28.4 for 20/80 alfalfa/barley ratio) and then for the 30/70 ratio irrigated with treated wastewater (22.5%), and then for the 100/0 ratio of alfalfa/barley irrigated with rainwater (19.0). Overall, results of this study showed that cereal-legume intercropping irrigated with treated grey water can be used as a suitable management strategy for producing high-quality and high-quantity forage. Furthermore, the use of treated water can reduce the already strained demand on fresh water due to increase in population among other factors.