Effectiveness of Combination of Chitosan Gel and Hydroxyapatite from Crabs Shells (Portunus pelagicus) Waste as Bonegraft on Periodontal Network Regeneration through IL-1 and BMP-2 AnalysisRead the full article
International Journal of Biomaterials publishes research on the theory, design, engineering, fabrication, and implementation of materials and devices for therapeutic or diagnostic use in biological systems.
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Mycelium-Based Composite: The Future Sustainable Biomaterial
Because of the alarming rate of human population growth, technological improvement should be needed to save the environment from pollution. The practice of business as usual on material production is not creating a circular economy. The circular economy refers to an economic model whose objective is to produce goods and services sustainably, by limiting the consumption and waste of resources (raw materials, water, and energy). Fungal-based composites are the recently implemented technology that fulfills the concept of the circular economy. It is made with the complex of fungi mycelium and organic substrates by using fungal mycelium as natural adhesive materials. The quality of the composite depends on both types of fungi and substrate. To ensure the physicochemical property of the fabricated composite, mycelium morphology, bimolecular content, density, compressive strength, thermal stability, and hydrophobicity were determined. This composite is proven to be used for different applications such as packaging, architectural designs, walls, and insulation. It also has unique features in terms of low cost, low emission, and recyclable.
Cotton Cellulose-Derived Hydrogel and Electrospun Fiber as Alternative Material for Wound Dressing Application
Cotton has been recognized as a useful biomaterial over decades, and it has been widely applied in the textile industry. However, a large amount of cotton waste is generated during the manufacturing processes, but it has been considered as a low-value product. With high content of cellulose remaining in cotton waste, our study focuses on transforming cotton cellulose into a valuable product. Cellulose was extracted from cotton waste and modified into two main materials for wound dressing application: hydrogel-based water absorbent materials and electrospun composite nanofibers. In order to enhance the water absorption, carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), the modified cellulose with functional group prone to interact with water molecules, has been developed in this study. The hydrogel-based CMC was created by using the chemical cross-linking reaction of epichlorohydrin (ECH). The hydrogel demonstrated the swelling and reswelling ability by 1718 ± 137% and 97.95 ± 9.76%, respectively. Meanwhile, cellulose/PEG in trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) was successfully fabricated as nonwoven composite by a conventional electrospinning technique. The fabrics provided highly appropriated properties as wound dressing, including the following: water absorption was up to 1300 times and water vapor permeability controlled in the range of 2163–2285 g·m−2·day−1. This showed the preliminary information for recovering cotton waste into valuable products.
A Comparative Evaluation of the Radiopacity of Contemporary Restorative CAD/CAM Blocks Using Digital Radiography Based on the Impact of Material Composition
Purpose. The main purpose of this study was to assess the radiopacity of contemporary restorative computer-aided design (CAD)/computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) materials and the impact of material composition as measured by energy-dispersive X-ray spectrophotometry (EDX) on radiopacity. Materials and Methods. Ten specimens of six CAD/CAM materials with 1 mm thickness were produced and then digitally radiographed with an aluminum (Al) step-wedge (SW) and 1 mm thick tooth slice. The specimen mean gray values (MGVs) were recorded in pixels and compared to an Al-SW, dentin, and enamel of equal thickness. For the elementary analysis of the composition of the materials, EDX was performed. Results. The recorded MGVs ranged between 21.20 ± 4.94 and 238.5 ± 13.61 pixels. Materials were sorted according to the MGVs descendingly, Prettau, Vita Suprinity, Vita Enamic, Shofu, Pekkton, and BioHPP. Prettau and Vita Suprinity had significantly higher MGV than dentin and 1 mm thick Al. In comparison, Vita Enamic had a slightly higher value than dentin and 1 mm thick Al. Although Pekkton and BioHPP had MGV significantly lower than dentin and 1 mm thick Al, Shofu had a significantly lower value than dentin and nonsignificantly lower than 1 mm thick Al (p < 0.05). According to EDX analysis, the examined materials contained several components in varying quantities of radiopacity. Conclusions. The radiopacity of only three studied materials exceeded the International Organization for Standardization’s minimum standards (ISO).
Sugarcane Bagasse as the Source of Nanocrystalline Cellulose for Gelatin-Free Capsule Shell
Gelatin-free capsules are possibly produced through an innovation which involves utilizing environmentally friendly materials derived from plants such as bagasse which are produced into nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC). This research was conducted to report the extraction and characterization of NCC from the abundant industrial plantation waste of sugarcane and its application as the base material for gelatin-free capsule shell material. The process involved using different concentrations of NCC at 1%, 2%, 4%, and 7% (in wt. %) with the addition of 1% hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) (in wt. %) and 1% carbopol (in wt. %). Moreover, the NCC capsules obtained from sugarcane bagasse were tested for moisture content, tensile strength, elongation, solubility, and pH. The results showed that sugarcane bagasse contains 40–50% cellulose, 6.15%–9.5% moisture content which indicates they are potentially better in terms of storage, 7.25–7.85 pH, and 0.05–0.136 MPa gel strength, and the elongation value ranges from 7.19 to 87.51%. These values were discovered to have satisfied the standard requirements as indicated by the optimal concentration of 4% NCC +1% HPMC, which is in line with the Japanese Industrial Standard (JIS), thereby leading to the consideration of the material safe to be used as raw material in making capsule shells.
Comparison of Different Restoration Techniques for Endodontically Treated Teeth
The aim of the present study is to evaluate the physical properties of endodontically treated teeth restored with five different restorative techniques and materials. Hundred and forty extracted human molar teeth were used. In addition to five restoration groups, specimens with no restorations were used as the negative control, and intact molar teeth were used as the positive control. For flexural strength tests, material specimens were made from 5 different materials using a mould according to ISO 4049 standards. One-way ANOVA revealed that the fracture resistance was significantly affected by the restoration type. SFRC group showed the best fracture resistance values, while lowest values were seen in the GWF group. The test results of flexural strength showed values between 140 and 184 MPa and modulus of elasticity between 6.33 and 18.89 GPa (). Under the limits of this study, results showed that SFRC can be used to increase the fracture resistance of ETT.
Design and Evaluation of Web-Based Dental Implant Registry (DIR) for Better Clinical Outcomes
Introduction. Identification of dental implant system in undocumented patients is a major challenge for dentists due to the vast variety of tools and technologies that are used in dental care. It also takes a long time to identify the type of connection or length and diameter of implant. To obtain accurate and timely information, it is necessary to have a Dental Implant Registry (DIR). In the present study, a DIR was designed, developed, and evaluated at the Dental Implant Research Center of Tehran University of Medical Sciences. Materials and Methods. This is an applied, developmental, and cross-sectional study that was conducted between 2018 and 2020. In the present study, after determining the objectives of DIR system, its conceptual model was designed by EDraw Max 7.9 software. Then, the registry was developed in Visual Studio 2018 environment with the C# programming language and, finally, it was evaluated by Nielsen’s ten principles of usability assessment. Results. After creating the registry, its data entry search and report functions were tested. Also, in the exploratory evaluation, the highest number of problems related to the principles of system clarity and compatibility between the system and real world was identified. Conclusion. The web-based DIR created in C# programming language has the ability to gather data, provide report with different access levels, and send text messages to patients for follow-up. This tool enables physicians to quickly identify the components of dental implant. The web-based DIR also provides support for health research, quality assessment, and dental performance assessment.