International Journal of Endocrinology
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Acceptance rate35%
Submission to final decision48 days
Acceptance to publication46 days
CiteScore4.000
Journal Citation Indicator0.510
Impact Factor3.257

The Association between Baseline, Changes in Uric Acid, and Renal Failure in the Elderly Chinese Individuals: A Prospective Study with a 3-Year Follow-Up

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International Journal of Endocrinology publishes original research articles and review articles that provide insights into the endocrine system and its associated diseases at a genomic, molecular, biochemical and cellular level.

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International Journal of Endocrinology maintains an Editorial Board of practicing researchers from around the world, to ensure manuscripts are handled by editors who are experts in the field of study.

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We currently have a number of Special Issues open for submission. Special Issues highlight emerging areas of research within a field, or provide a venue for a deeper investigation into an existing research area.

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Research Article

The Relationship between Human Embryo Parameters and De Novo Chromosomal Abnormalities in Preimplantation Genetic Testing Cycles

Research Question. What is the incidence of de novo chromosome abnormalities (>4 Mb), and are they related to embryo parameters in preimplantation genetic testing for chromosome structural rearrangement (PGT-SR) cycles and preimplantation genetic testing for aneuploidy (PGT-A) cycles? Design. In total, 456 PGT cycles, including 283 PGT-SR cycles and 173 PGT-A cycles, were assessed through comprehensive chromosome screening (CCS) from January 2017 to June 2020 at the Department of Reproductive Medicine of the Third Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University. Trophectoderm (TE) biopsies were sequenced using next-generation sequencing (NGS). The incidence of de novo chromosome abnormalities was calculated, and the relationships between de novo chromosome abnormality rates and maternal age, number of oocytes retrieved, and parameters of cleavage-stage embryos and blastocyst-stage embryos were investigated. Results. The incidence of de novo chromosome abnormalities was 28.0% (318/1,135) in the PGT-SR cycles and 36.3% (214/590) in the PGT-A cycles, which increased with maternal age in both PGT-SR cycles ( = 0.018) and PGT-A cycles ( < 0.001). The incidence of de novo chromosome abnormalities was related to TE grade ( < 0.001), internal cell mass grade ( = 0.002), and development speed (day 5 vs. day 7:  < 0.001) of blastocyst-stage embryos. The incidence of de novo chromosomal abnormalities was irrelevant to the number of oocytes retrieved and the parameters of the embryo at the cleavage stage. Conclusion. Blastocysts with higher morphology scores and faster progression had a lower incidence of de novo chromosome abnormalities, especially complex chromosome abnormalities. De novo chromosome abnormalities may negatively affect the morphological grading of blastocysts. Our findings will provide valuable information to the fertility doctor for embryo selection in non-PGT cycles.

Research Article

Effects of Low-Dose Spironolactone Combined with Metformin or Either Drug Alone on Insulin Resistance in Patients with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: A Pilot Study

Metformin and spironolactone alone can be used for the management of polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), and their combination could result in even better outcomes. To compare the effects and safety of low-dose spironolactone combined with metformin or either drug alone on insulin resistance (IR) and functional improvement in patients with PCOS, this was a single-center, randomized, open-label, pilot study of patients with PCOS at the Third Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University between 01/2014 and 01/2016. The participants were randomized 1 : 1 : 1 to metformin, spironolactone, or metformin + spironolactone. The primary endpoint was the change in the homeostatic model assessment (HOMA)-IR after 12 weeks of treatment. A total of 189 participants were randomized (63 per group); 31 dropped out, and 54, 51, and 53 completed the 12-week treatment in the metformin, spironolactone, and combined groups, respectively. There were no differences in any parameters between the metformin and spironolactone groups (all P > 0.05). In the combined group, after 12 weeks of treatment, HOMA-IR (1.71 ± 0.91) was lower than in the metformin (1.92 ± 1.07, P < 0.05) and spironolactone (2.38 ± 1.14, P < 0.05) groups. In addition, total testosterone (TT), free androgen index (FAI), and area under the curve-insulin (AUCins) were lower in the combined group compared with the metformin group (all P < 0.05), while TT, FAI, HOMA-β, fasting plasma glucose, and AUCins were lower in the spironolactone group (all P < 0.05). Both metformin and spironolactone decreased HOMA-IR in patients with PCOS but without differences between the two monotherapies. The combined therapy decreased HOMA-IR to a greater extent than monotherapy.

Research Article

Sex Difference in the Association of Osteoporosis and Osteopenia Prevalence in Patients with Adrenal Adenoma and Different Degrees of Cortisol Excess

Objective. Osteoporosis and osteopenia (OS/OP) are frequent in patients with adrenal adenomas associated with cortisol excess (CE). However, the relationship between OS/OP and CE severity considering sex differences is unknown. Design. A cross-sectional observational study from January 2006 to December 2015. Patients. 237 patients with adrenal adenoma associated with CE, including Cushing’s syndrome and mild autonomous cortisol secretion (MACS), diagnosed in 10 referral centers in Japan. MACS was defined by 1 mg overnight dexamethasone suppression test (DST) cortisol level >1.8 μg/dL. Measurements. Prevalence of fragility fractures, medication for osteoporosis, and bone mineral density. Results. In total, 112 of 237 patients, who were predominantly female () and had lower BMI (), had OS/OP. Patients with OS/OP was significantly affected by CE () than those without. The adjusted odds ratio (OR) for predicting OS/OP was obtained in multivariate logistic regression analysis. Clinical measures of CE, 1 mg DST cortisol levels, were positively associated with OS/OP in total cases (OR 1.124, 95% CI: 1.070–1.181, ) and the cases with MACS (OR 1.156, 95%CI: 1.046–1.278, ). A cutoff value of 1 mg DST cortisol level >5.0 μg/dL was associated with OS/OP differently between men and women. OS/OP risk in men with MACS was significantly affected only by 1 mg DST cortisol levels. However, OS/OP risk in women with MACS was significantly affected by 1 mg DST cortisol levels and age. Conclusions. CE severity in adrenal adenoma is positively associated with OS/OP. However, the associated factors of OS/OP in the patients with MACS are different between men and women.

Research Article

The Relationships among Plasma Fetuin-B, Thyroid Autoimmunity, and Fertilization Rate In Vitro Fertilization and Embryo Transfer

Objective. The objective of the study is to investigate the relationships between fetuin-B, thyroid autoimmunity (TAI), and pregnancy outcomes in women undergoing in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer (IVF-ET). Design, Patients, and Measurements. In this prospective study, 180 women who were preparing for pregnancy with IVF-ET were included. There were 120 women with TAI positive and 60 negative controls matched with age and BMI. Results. The 180 women had mean ± SD age of 31.4 ± 4.0 years, with a mean ± SD BMI of 21.0 ± 1.6 kg/m2. There was a significant difference in the level of fetuin-B in women with TAI positive compared with TAI negative group (65.2 ± 18.5 vs. 76.4 ± 25.1, ). Fetuin-B had a negative relationship with thyroid antibodies even after adjusting for other variables (OR (95%CI) = 0.98 (0.96–0.99), ). Compared with women with TAI negative, those with TAI positive had a significantly higher risk of low fertilization (20.0% vs. 6.7%; ). And we found no difference in terms of pregnancy, abortion, implantation, and live birth rate between the two groups. Logistic regression analysis showed that both fetuin-B and TAI were the independent factors to lead the low fertilization of IVF-ET (OR (95%CI) = 0.96 (0.94–0.99) and 4.084 (1.39–15.30), and 0.019, respectively). Conclusion. Fetuin-B was significantly associated with TAI and low fertilization rate in women undergoing IVF-ET. Decreased fetuin-B in women with TAI may be the underlying reason for the lower IVF-ET success rate.

Research Article

Embryo Density and Its Neutrality in Day-3 Embryo Development: A Retrospective Cohort Study

Introduction. Many studies have shown that embryo density has an impact on day-3 embryo-developmental outcomes; however, embryo density remains controversial in clinical practice. We aimed to evaluate the association between embryo density and day-3 embryo-developmental outcomes in real world with the largest sample size. Methods. In 2018, we identified 10941 day-3 embryos from all female patients (n = 1568) in the study. The embryos were allocated to three embryonic densities: 30 μl/embryo (individual culture), 15 μl/embryo, and 10 μl/embryo (group culture). The primary outcomes were cleaving speed, quality, and proportion of successful implantations. The generalized estimate equation (GEE) model was used both in the univariate analysis and multivariable logistic regression analyses to investigate the relationship between embryo density and embryo-developmental outcomes. Results. There were 3064, 5695, and 2182 embryos in the 30 μl/embryo group, 15 μl/embryo group, and 10 μl/embryo group, respectively. The proportions of 7–10 cell embryos were 57.2%, 56.1%, and 58.3% in three densities with no statistical significance (), respectively. The proportions of morphologically good embryos were 20%, 20.3%, and 20% in three densities with no statistical significance (), respectively. Proportions of implanted embryos were 37.7%, 37.1%, and 27.8% with no statistical significance (), respectively. After adjustment for confounders, which were significant in the univariate analysis, the embryo density was still not associated with day-3 embryo-cleaving speed, day-3 embryo quality, and day-3 embryo-implanting potential (all ). Conclusion. In a 30 μl microdrop, the culturing embryos with embryo densities of 15, 10, and 30 μl/embryo (from zygotes to day 3) had similar developmental outcomes. The embryo density had no impact on day-3 embryo development.

Research Article

Association between Maternal Thyroxine and Risk of Fetal Congenital Heart Defects: A Hospital-Based Cohort Study

Background. Evidence for the association between maternal thyroxine concentration and the risk of fetal congenital heart defects (CHDs) is absent. We aimed to study the association of maternal free and total thyroxine (FT4 and TT4) concentrations and the free-to-total thyroxine proportion (FTT4P, %) with the risk of CHD. Methods. The study was a hospital-based cohort study of 52,047 women who received a universal thyroid function test between 2012 and 2016. CHD was screened by ultrasound between 20 and 24 weeks of gestation or diagnosed until the 42nd day of birth. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) of fetal CHD were estimated for maternal FT4 and TT4 concentrations or the FTT4P by multivariate logistic regression. Results. A total of 41,647 women with singleton pregnancies were included for the analysis and 215 CHD cases were detected. The FT4 concentration was significantly associated with a higher risk of CHDs (OR, 1.04, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.01 to 1.07). Each 1% higher FTT4P was related to a 1.41-fold (95% CI: 0.27 to 3.59) higher risk of CHDs. The association became stronger for women with a thyroid function test performed between 12 and 18 weeks of gestation (OR = 1.05 (95% CI: 1.01 to 1.09) for the FT4 concentration and 3.32 (95% CI: 1.43 to 7.73) for the FTT4P). Conclusions. A higher FT4 concentration or FTT4P, measured between 12 and 18 weeks of gestation, was associated with an increased risk of CHDs. These findings may provide new insights into the mechanisms of CHDs and evidence for clinical decisions related to thyroid function tests.

International Journal of Endocrinology
 Journal metrics
Acceptance rate35%
Submission to final decision48 days
Acceptance to publication46 days
CiteScore4.000
Journal Citation Indicator0.510
Impact Factor3.257
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