International Journal of Inflammation
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Acceptance rate13%
Submission to final decision64 days
Acceptance to publication36 days
CiteScore7.700
Journal Citation Indicator0.620
Impact Factor-

Effect of a Hemodialysis Session on Markers of Inflammation and Endotoxin

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International Journal of Inflammation publishes papers on the molecular basis, cell biology and pharmacology of inflammation, including acute/chronic inflammation and the cellular processes/molecular mechanisms involved in inflammatory responses.

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International Journal of Inflammation maintains an Editorial Board of practicing researchers from around the world, to ensure manuscripts are handled by editors who are experts in the field of study.

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We currently have a number of Special Issues open for submission. Special Issues highlight emerging areas of research within a field, or provide a venue for a deeper investigation into an existing research area.

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Research Article

Cytotoxic Activity and Lymphocyte Subtypes in Mice Selected for Maximal and Minimal Inflammatory Response after Transplantation of B16F10 and S91 Melanoma Cells

AIRmax and AIRmin mice strains were selected according to the intensity of their acute inflammatory responsiveness. Previous studies have shown that AIR mice differ in their resistance to chemically induced skin tumors and in the development of melanoma metastases, in addition to differences in neutrophil and NK cells activity. In the present work, we aimed to evaluate whether the difference of susceptibility to murine melanoma is associated with NK cytotoxic activity against Yac.1 cells and lymphocyte subsets. Mice were subcutaneously inoculated with B16F10 or S91 melanoma cells. After 7, 14, or 30 days, the animals were euthanized to analyze the number of lymphocyte subsets, cytotoxic activity, and number of cytokine-producing spleen cells. AIRmax mice presented a higher number of CD4+/CD25+ cells than that of AIRmin mice following inoculation of B16F10 cells, whereas inoculation of S91 cells reduced CD4+/CD25+ and increased TCD8+ cell subsets in the AIRmax mice. AIRmax mice had a higher number of interleukin (IL)-10- and IL-12-producing cells and a lower number of interferon-γ–producing cells than those of AIRmin mice at 30 days. The cytotoxic activity of nonadherent spleen cells was similar in both the AIR strains. These results suggest that melanoma cells can induce different responses in AIR mice, possibly owing to alterations in regulatory mechanisms, such as the action of CD4+/CD25+ regulatory T cells and IL-10, in AIRmax mice.

Research Article

NPT1220-312, a TLR2/TLR9 Small Molecule Antagonist, Inhibits Pro-Inflammatory Signaling, Cytokine Release, and NLRP3 Inflammasome Activation

Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play a critical role in innate immune system responses to damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) and pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). A growing body of evidence suggests that excessive TLR-mediated innate immune system activation can lead to neuronal damage and precipitate or perpetuate neurodegenerative diseases. Among TLR subtypes, both TLR2 and TLR9 have been implicated in neurodegenerative disorders with increased expression of these receptors in the central nervous system being associated with pro-inflammatory signaling and increased burdens of pathologic aggregated proteins. In the current study, we characterized the actions of a combined TLR2/TLR9 antagonist, NPT1220-312, on pro-inflammatory signaling and cytokine release in monocyte/macrophage-derived heterologous cells, human microglia, and murine and human whole blood. NPT1220-312 potently blocked TLR2- and TLR9-mediated release of inflammatory cytokines in monocyte/macrophage cells and in human microglia. NPT1220-312 also blocked TLR2-mediated activation of the NLR family pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome including IL-1β, IL-18, and apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a CARD (ASC) release to the culture medium of human differentiated macrophages. The ability of NPT1220-312 to inhibit TLR2 mediated pro-inflammatory release of chemokines and cytokines in situ was demonstrated using murine and human whole blood. Together, these findings suggest that blockade of TLR2 and TLR9 may reduce inappropriate production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines from peripheral and central immune cells and thus potentially provide therapeutic benefit in neuroinflammatory/neurodegenerative disorders.

Research Article

Causal Biological Network Model for Inflammasome Signaling Applied for Interpreting Transcriptomic Changes in Various Inflammatory States

Virtually any stressor that alters the cellular homeostatic state may result in an inflammatory response. As a critical component of innate immunity, inflammasomes play a prominent role in the inflammatory response. The information on inflammasome biology is rapidly growing, thus creating the need for structuring it into a model that can help visualize and enhance the understanding of underlying biological processes. Causal biological network (CBN) models provide predictive power for novel disease mechanisms and treatment outcomes. We assembled the available literature information on inflammasome activation into the CBN model and scored it with publicly available transcriptomic datasets that address viral infection of the lungs, osteo- and rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, and aging. The scoring inferred pathway activation leading to NLRP3 inflammasome activation in these diverse conditions, demonstrating that the CBN model provides a platform for interpreting transcriptomic data in the context of inflammasome activation.

Research Article

Protective Effect of Bergapten against Human Erythrocyte Hemolysis and Protein Denaturation In Vitro

Bergapten, a furocoumarin found in many medicinal plants, is used for the management of various conditions. The present in vitro study evaluated the ability of bergapten to prevent human erythrocyte hemolysis and protein denaturation. Bergapten administered at 10, 30, and 100 μg/ml exhibited a significant concentration-dependent protection on the erythrocyte membrane exposed to hypotonicity and heat-induced hemolysis. The concentration at which bergapten inhibited 50% of the cells from hemolysis (IC50) was determined on a dose-response curve, plotted as logarithmic (concentration) against percentage inhibition, keeping the hemolysis produced within the control group at 100%. Bergapten treatment produced an IC50 value of 7.71 ± 0.27 μg/ml and 4.23 ± 0.42 μg/ml for hypotonicity and heat-induced hemolysis, respectively. Diclofenac sodium at similar concentrations produced an IC50 value of 12.22 ± 0.30 μg/ml and 9.44 ± 0.23 μg/ml in the hypotonicity and heat-induced hemolysis, respectively. The ability of bergapten to inhibit protein denaturation was studied as part of an investigation on its mechanism of action. The results showed a significant concentration-dependent reduction in protein denaturation. When administered at 10, 30, and 100 μg/ml, bergapten produced a concentration-dependent reduction in albumin denaturation. Bergapten inhibited protein denaturation with IC50 values of 5.34 ± 0.30 μg/ml and 12.18 ± 0.20 μg/ml in the heat-treated egg albumin and bovine serum albumin denaturation experiments, respectively. Diclofenac sodium (10, 30, and 100 μg/ml) exhibited a similar protection against heat-treated egg albumin and bovine serum albumin denaturation experiments with IC50 values of 8.93 ± 0.17 μg/ml and 12.72 ± 0.11 μg/ml, respectively. Taken together, data from this study show that the pharmacological properties of bergapten may in part be related to its membrane-stabilizing and antidenaturation properties.

Research Article

Terminalia catappa Extract Palliates Redox Imbalance and Inflammation in Diabetic Rats by Upregulating Nrf-2 Gene

This study aims at evaluating the ameliorative role of Terminalia catappa aqueous leaf extract (TCA) on hyperglycaemia-induced oxidative stress and inflammation in a high-fat, low dose streptozotocin-induced type 2 diabetic rat model. Experimental rats were treated orally with 400 and 800 mg/kg bw TCA daily for four weeks. Antioxidant enzyme activities, plasma glucose concentration, protein concentration, oxidative stress, and inflammation biomarkers were assayed using standard methods. Hepatic relative expressions of tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-six (IL-6), and nuclear factor-erythroid 2 related factor 2 (Nrf-2) were also assessed. Molecular docking and prediction of major TCA phytoconstituents’ biological activity related to T2DM-induced oxidative stress were evaluated in silico. Induction of diabetes significantly () reduced superoxide dismutase, glutathione-S-transferase, and peroxidase activities. Glutathione and protein stores were significantly () depleted, while glucose, MDA, interleukin-six (IL-6), and tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) concentrations were significantly () increased. A significant () upregulation of hepatic TNF-α and IL-6 expression and downregulation () of Nrf-2 expression were observed during diabetes onset. TCA treatment significantly () modulated systemic diabetic-induced oxidative stress and inflammation, mRNA expression dysregulation, and dysregulated macromolecule metabolism. However, only 800 mg/kg TCA treatment significantly () downregulated hepatic TNF-α expression. 9-Oxabicyclo[3.3.1]nonane-2,6-diol and 1,2,3-Benzenetriol bound comparably to glibenclamide in Nrf-2, IL-6, and TNF-α binding pockets. They were predicted to be GST A and M substrate, JAK2 expression, ribulose-phosphate 3-epimerase, NADPH peroxidase, and glucose oxidase inhibitors. These results suggest that TCA ameliorates hyperglycaemia-induced oxidative stress and inflammation by activating Nrf-2 gene.

Research Article

Ethanol Extract of Pomegranate (Punica granatum) Peel in Increasing the Expression of Caspase-3 in DSS-Induced Mice

Background. Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a malignancy derived from the glandular epithelial cells in the colon. Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are more likely to develop CRC. Cancer proliferation is characterized by the loss of inhibition of apoptosis, which involves caspase-3 activation. This study examined the effects of the pomegranate peel extract on the expression of caspase-3 in mice crypt cells induced by dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) 2%. Methods. The experimental study was done in six groups. All treatments were done in 42 days. The groups were all induced by DSS through water drinking, except for the normal group, which was only given water. The treatments given included the pomegranate extract in two doses (240 mg and 480 mg/kg bw/day), aspirin, and ellagic acid. The specimens were then fixated and stained for the immunohistochemistry scoring for the expression of caspase-3, which was then analyzed statistically. Results. The H-scores of each treatment group were 213.23 ± 8.32 (DSS group), 243.81 ± 18.69 (normal group), 226.10 ± 12.38 (pomegranate peel extract of 240 mg/kg/d), 238.84 ± 15.81 (pomegranate peel extract of 480 mg/kg/d), 227.47 ± 12.15 (aspirin), and 224.01 ± 18.39 (ellagic acid). Statistical differences were found in one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and post hoc analysis among the DSS group, normal group, and dose 2 group (pomegranate peel extract of 480 mg/kg/day). Conclusions. The ethanol extract of pomegranate was able to induce apoptosis, which was demonstrated by the increase of caspase-3 expression.

International Journal of Inflammation
 Journal metrics
Acceptance rate13%
Submission to final decision64 days
Acceptance to publication36 days
CiteScore7.700
Journal Citation Indicator0.620
Impact Factor-
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