Point-of-Care (POC) Urinary L-Type Fatty Acid-Binding Protein (u-LFABP) Use in Critically Ill, Very Preterm NeonatesRead the full article
International Journal of Nephrology publishes original research articles and review articles on the prevention, diagnosis, and management of kidney diseases and associated disorders.
International Journal of Nephrology maintains an Editorial Board of practicing researchers from around the world, to ensure manuscripts are handled by editors who are experts in the field of study.
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Amelioration of Nephrotoxicity in Mice Induced by Antituberculosis Drugs Using Ensete ventricosum (Welw.) Cheesman Corm Extract
Background. Antituberculosis drugs are antimicrobial agents important for treating a communicable disease called tuberculosis. Despite their importance, antituberculosis drugs such as isoniazid and rifampicin have severe adverse effects like nephrotoxicity with acute renal failures. Ensete ventricosum (Welw.) Cheesman is a nutritional herbaceous perennial plant, and it has indigenous ethnomedicinal values for the society. This study aimed to evaluate the protective role of the Ensete ventricosum (Welw.) Cheesman corm extract (EVCE) against nephrotoxicity induced by isoniazid and rifampicin in mice. Methods. The present study was conducted on thirty Swiss albino mice randomly allocated into five groups. Group-I (only distilled water), Group-II (only isoniazid 75 mg/kg and rifampicin150 mg/kg), Group-III (isoniazid and rifampicin along with 200 mg/kg EVCE), Group-IV (isoniazid and rifampicin along with 400 mg/kg EVCE), and Group-V (isoniazid and rifampicin along with silymarin) were treated for thirty days. At the end of the study, the experimental animals were sacrificed after being injected with anesthetic drug, blood was drawn for a kidney function test, and the kidney was also taken from each experimental animal for histopathological evaluation. Data were entered and analyzed by using one-way ANOVA of SPSS version 25. Results and Conclusion. Serum levels of creatinine, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), and uric acid of the Group-II mice were significantly () elevated, and serum levels of total proteins and albumin of Group-II mice were significantly () decreased as compared to Group-I. The group of mice treated with an EVCE reinstated those derangements. The kidney section of Group-II mice showed an abnormality in kidney structure; however, these deformities were not detectable in group-IV mice. The EVCE has sufficient nephroprotective potential against antituberculosis drug-induced kidney injury.
Prevalence and Factors Associated with Acute Kidney Injury in Sub-Saharan African Adults: A Review of the Current Literature
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a complex condition that can occur in both community and hospital settings and has many aetiologies. These aetiologies may be infectious, toxic, surgical, or related to the different management methods. Although it is a major public health problem worldwide, it must be emphasised that both its incidence and mortality rate appear to be very high in sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries compared to developed countries. The profile of AKI is very different from that of more developed countries. There are no reliable statistics on the incidence of AKI in SSA. Infections (malaria, HIV, diarrhoeal, and other diseases), nephrotoxins, and obstetric and surgical complications are the main aetiologies in Africa. The management of AKI is costly and associated with high rates of prolonged hospitalisation and in-hospital mortality.
Prognostic and Diagnostic Value of Endocan in Kidney Diseases
Endocan, previously called endothelial cell-specific molecule-1, is a soluble proteoglycan that is predominantly expressed in vascular endothelial cells of the lungs and kidneys. It is upregulated by proinflammatory cytokines and plays a critical role in inflammatory, proliferative, and neovascularization processes. The utility of endocan as a biomarker in a wide spectrum of diseases is being increasingly acknowledged. In this review, we summarize the current evidence concerning the role of endocan in kidney diseases, with emphasis on its prognostic and diagnostic value. It seems that the determination of plasma endocan levels may provide useful prognostic information in many types of renal failure such as chronic kidney disease, IgA nephropathy, and diabetic nephropathy. Endocan could additionally improve the early diagnostic evaluation of acute kidney disease, chronic renal allograft injury, and acute rejection after kidney transplantation, thus contributing to endothelial cell injury monitoring in a timely manner.
Clinical Epidemiology Characteristics and Antibiotic Resistance Associated with Urinary Tract Infections Caused by E. coli
Introduction. In individuals with urinary tract infections, Escherichia coli (E. coli) is an ubiquitous causative agent and antibiotic resistance is on the rise throughout the world. Therefore, early diagnosis and appropriate choice of antimicrobials are essential. The purpose of our study is to describe some of the clinical and epidemiological characteristics and the laboratory test results of children treated in our hospital for urinary tract infections caused by E. coli. Methods. The study included 128 patients from 2 months to 15 years of age with urinary tract infections caused by E. coli and treated at the Haiphong Children’s Hospital during the periods of 2011–2013 and 2018–2020. Results. During the two study periods, 57 and 71 cases, respectively, were included. The most common clinical symptom was fever in 40 and 46 cases, respectively. The proportion of E. coli’s resistance to ampicillin increased from 85.3% in 2011–2013 to 97.1% in 2018–2020. In 2011–2013, 70.5% of E. coli isolates were resistant to cotrimoxazole, which increased to 81.4% during 2018–2020. During both periods, E. coli was highly sensitive to amikacin, at 87% and 95.5%, respectively. In 2018–2020, carbapenems (meropenem and imipenem) and piperacillin were also effective against E. coli. Conclusion. Our study revealed that high fever was the most prevalent clinical characteristic in urinary tract infections caused by E. coli in children and E. coli was mostly resistant to ampicillin, nalidixic acid, and cotrimoxazole but was highly sensitive to ciprofloxacin, amikacin, piperacillin, meropenem, and imipenem.
Intravenous Administration of Cisplatin with Magnesium Sulfate Supplement May Prevent Kidney Toxicity in Rats: The Role of Gender and Magnesium Sulfate Dose
Background. Cisplatin (CP) is widely used to treat various kinds of malignancies, but to avoid its side effects of nephrotoxicity and hypomagnesemia, magnesium supplementation is a subject of debate. The current study was designed to determine the protective role of intravenous magnesium sulfate (MgSO4) against intravenous administration of CP in male and female rats. Method. In this case-control experimental study, 80 Wistar male and female rats in 12 groups of experiments were subjected to receive intravenous administration of CP accompanied with intravenous infusion of different doses (1, 3, and 10 mg/ml solution) of MgSO4 and were compared with the control groups. Results. CP administration increased blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine (Cr), kidney tissue damage score (KTDS), and kidney weight (KW), and they were attenuated by the mid-dose of MgSO4 supplementation in female rats. However, in male rats, the increase of Cr, BUN, KTDS, and KW induced by CP was ameliorated by low, mid-, and high doses of MgSO4 supplements. The levels of these markers were significantly different between male and female rats in the mid-dose of MgSO4-treated group (BUN: , Cr: , KTDS: , and KW: ). CP reduced clearance of Cr (ClCr) in both male and female rats significantly compared to the control group of saline alone (Pmale = 0.002 and Pfemale = 0.001), and the mid- and high doses of MgSO4 supplements improved ClCr in female rats. There were also sex differences in ClCr in mid- () and high () doses of MgSO4-treated groups. CP accompanied with the mid-dose of MgSO4 supplement reduced the KTDS (Pmale = 0.04 and Pfemale = 0.004) and KW (Pmale = 0.002 and Pfemale = 0.042) in both male and female rats significantly when compared with the CP-alone-treated group, while there were also significant differences between the sexes (KTDS: and KW: ). CP accompanied with three different doses of MgSO4 supplements did not improve the serum levels of lactate dehydrogenase, urine level of sodium, malondialdehyde, urine flow, and nitrite statistically when compared with the CP-alone-treated group. Conclusion. The renal protective effect of MgSO4 could be dose and gender related.
Kidney-Related Outcome in Cardiorenal Syndrome Type 3
Background and Aim. In cardiorenal syndrome (CRS) type 3, acute kidney injury (AKI) induces and, sometimes, even perpetuates acute cardiac pathologies such as arrhythmias with or without cardiac decompensation or the latter due to other causes. Epidemiological data on CRS type 3 are limited. The aim of this study was to analyze epidemiological and outcome variables in CRS type 3. Methods. A single-center, retrospective and observational trial. All subjects with positive AKI alert, treated at the University Hospital Brandenburg between January and December 2019, were evaluated. Definition of CRS type 3 was according to predefined criteria. The three endpoint categories were in-hospital death, dialysis, and recovery of kidney function. Results. A total number of 1,334 AKI alerts were screened. Finally, 95 subjects received the diagnosis CRS type 3. The survival rates were 47.1% (females) and 43.6% (males). 46.8% of affected females and 33.3% of the males required dialysis therapy. Complete recovery at the time of discharge occurred in 35.8%, and no recovery at all was found in 54.7%. Conclusions. All three predefined study endpoints, the mortality, the prevalence of dialysis, and the percentage of subjects without recovery of kidney function, were notably high. Therefore, AKI patients with imminent or established cardiac complications require the highest attention of nephrologists in charge.