International Journal of Zoology
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Acceptance rate27%
Submission to final decision80 days
Acceptance to publication37 days
CiteScore1.200
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Impact Factor-

Avian Communities of Alatish National Park, Ethiopia

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Research Article

Effect of Environmental Stressors on the Distribution and Abundance of Macroinvertebrates in Upper Awash River at Chilimo Forest, West Shewa, Ethiopia

Ethiopia is experiencing deterioration in river quality resulting in adverse effects on human health and hydrobionts. This study aimed to analyse the effects of specific environmental stressors on the distribution and abundance of macroinvertebrates in the Upper Awash River. The study was conducted from January 2018 to March 2018. Macroinvertebrates were collected from five sites using standard handheld nets. Physicochemical parameters including electrical conductivity, dissolved oxygen, total phosphorous, nitrate-nitrogen, pH, dissolved oxygen and water temperature that can affect the distribution and abundance of macroinvertebrates were assessed. A total of 14,465 individuals belonging to 33 families of insects and 5 families of the noninsect group were identified. Among all recorded taxa, Diptera was the most abundant and diversified order. Macroinvertebrates among the five sites showed variation in species evenness, richness, and Shannon Diversity Index. Values obtained from biotic indices and environmental parameters indicated the presence of organic pollution at different levels. The impacted downstream site paper mill waste (Walgata) had the relatively highest H-FBI index followed by Osole (more agricultural activities) indicating that Walgata and Osole were poorer in benthic faunal diversity than other sites. In addition, as habitat and water quality degradation increased, the number and percentage of Plecoptera, Ephemeroptera, and Trichoptera (EPT) decreased. The selected metrics will be also useful for the monitoring and assessment of the riverine systems and to access the impact of different stressors. As perturbation increased, species diversity, ETHbios index, Average Score Per Taxon, and family richness decreased, while the percentage of Chironomidae, Diptera, Dominant Taxa, and Hilsenhoff Family-Level Biotic Index increased indicating that tolerant species become abundant in degraded river bodies. Environmental protection agencies of governmental and nongovernmental organizations should make awareness for the local people so that they reduce activities that affect the river. Paper factory should also monitor its effluent from directly discharging into the Upper Awash River.

Research Article

The Biology of the African Bonytongue Heterotis niloticus (Cuvier, 1829) from the Lower Niger River at Agenebode in Edo State, Nigeria

Background. The African bonytongue, Heterotis niloticus, is readily accommodated in the fresh water of the Niger River. It is available all year round with a large population of juveniles and adults due to its fast growth and versatile feeding habits. This commercial fish is a highly preferred source of food because of its high protein content and hardy flesh, thus forming a very important component in the diet of many Nigerians. It is highly valued because of its socioeconomic importance and benefits. Hence, this research is designed with the aim of studying the biology of the African bonytongue, Heterotis niloticus, and providing viable information about its importance in fish culture in order to make an available added variety of culturable and affordable fish species in Nigeria. Results. The oesophagus is a muscular organ that is short and distensible. The oesophagus leads to the gizzard-like stomach, a reddish bilobed organ that is muscular and tough. H. niloticus is an omnivorous macrophage detritor, consuming a wide variety of bottom-dwelling food items. The histology of the gastrointestinal tract reveals four conspicuous layers from the inside to the outside: mucosa, submucosa, inner circular layer and outer longitudinal layer of muscularis, and serosa. The presence of numerous mucus glands and longitudinal folds with a prominent columnar epithelium provides durable length or an extension of the gut mucus to aid lubrication and easy passage of food materials, protecting the mucosal epithelium from mechanical or chemical injuries arising from interactions with digestive tract contents or enzymes. In addition, the presence of absorptive cells helps in the absorption of valuable nutritive substances. Conclusions. The anatomy of the mouth and gut and the aforementioned histology are modified to accommodate the feeding habits. H. niloticus has a single ovary that rests on the right side of the fish; it is reproductively active as the flood plains rise and peaks at the peak of the rains, being a moderately fecund fish. The high fecundity is complemented with peaks of GSI observed during the months of September, October, and November, which reveals spawning periods. Hence, the aforementioned attributes of H. niloticus make the fish a viable fish species for culture.

Research Article

Latitudinal Variation into the Macrofaunal Assemblages Associated to Zostera noltei Seagrass along the Atlantic Coast of Morocco

Large-scale research on seagrass-associated benthic fauna is very important for future regional marine conservation. In our study, we investigated spatial and latitudinal variation of benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages associated to Zostera noltei Hornemann, 1832 beds from five semi-enclosed coastal systems (SECSs) ranging from 23°N to 34°N along the Atlantic coast of Morocco. Overall, 17,320 individuals were reported as belonging to 96 taxa. The ecological community descriptors differ significantly at the level of the site. Specific richness showed an inconsistent significant pattern with latitude. The multivariate analyses of the assemblage’s composition showed 57% of total variation observed in benthic assemblages, while the PERMANOVA analysis confirmed that this variation is significant at the level of the site. According to DistLM results, variations in belowground biomass, and percentage of mud, were the important predictor variables explaining this variation along the large scale of the studied SECS. However, such patterns could be related to other factors such as habitat heterogeneity and regional, biogeographic, and anthropogenic factors. The present study marked the first attempt on broad-scale ecological research of seagrass beds in Morocco and offers baseline data for planning the broad-scale conservation of biodiversity in seagrass beds that remain suffering from multiple human-induced threats such as coastal developments and climate change.

Research Article

Diversity and Some Biological Aspects of Fishes in Lake Maybahr, Albuko Woreda, Ethiopia

Because fishes live in less-accessible habitats, their remarkable diversity is rarely appreciated. The fishery sector is growing rapidly worldwide with the intention of improving the livelihood in developing nations. Therefore, conservation and management of aquatic resources become eminent. Morphometric measurements of fishes are important tools in fish biology and fisheries assessment and conservation. Ethiopia is one of the developing countries with rich water resources. Although there are plenty of water bodies in the country, they are less explored for their ichthyofaunal documentation. Therefore, this study aimed to explore the diversity and some biological aspects of fishes in Lake Maybahr. The fish sample was collected from selected sampling sites using gill nets with varying mesh sizes. Fish identification was done in the field using relevant taxonomic keys. After identification, the total length (TL) and total weight (TW) of the specimens were measured to the nearest 0.1 cm and 0.1 g, respectively. After measurement, the samples were labeled and preserved in a 10% formalin solution. Two fish species were documented in the study area. The length-weight relationships indicated that both species (C. carpio and O. niloticus) exhibited allometric growth during the wet season. But C. carpio demonstrated an isometric growth in the dry season. The diversity index (H’ = 0.69) revealed that fish diversity in the current study is far less than the result reported in the other studies. The evenness index (J’ = 0.99) showed that each species is fairly represented by a number of individuals. The correlation coefficient value of length and weight parameters is statistically significant at a 1% significance level (s, R2 = 0.85). The mean FCF revealed that both fish species are in good health. Further study on local people’s perception, initiating fishing activities, and organizing and providing training to youth is recommended.

Research Article

Species Composition, Diversity, and Habitat Association of Medium- and Large-Sized Mammals in Chimit-Kolla, Abay Gorge, Ethiopia

Identifying the species distribution, diversity, and habitat association provides input to launch proper conservation interventions. A survey of medium- and large-sized mammal species was conducted in Chimit-Kolla area to assess their distribution, diversity, and relative abundance in November 2019 to September 2020. Line transect sampling and focus group discussions were used for data collection. Shannon diversity index and Sorenson’s coefficient were used to compute the diversity and habitat utilization of species. The association of species among habitats was tested using the chi-squared test. In the survey, 18 species of medium- and large-sized mammals belonging to the order Artiodactyla (7 species), Carnivora (6 species), Rodentia (1 species), Primates (3 species) and Tubulidentata (1 species) were recorded. The association of mammalian species among the three habitats was not significant (). However, the abundance of mammal species was significantly associated with forest habitats (). There was a significant variation in abundance of medium- and large-sized mammal species observed in the dry season (157, 57.5%) as compared to the wet season (116, 42.5%) (χ2 = 6.17, df = 1, and ). The most abundant species was olive baboon (Papio anubis), followed by grivet monkey (Chlorocebus aethiops) and crested porcupine (Hystrix cristata). While leopard (Panthera pardus), white-tailed mongoose (Ichneumia albicauda), and aardvark (Orycteropus afer) were the rarest mammalian species recorded. Forest habitat has the highest species diversity (H’ = 2.276) than riverine vegetation and wooded grassland. Mammal species showed a considerable similarity among habitats, and the highest similarity was recorded between forest and wooded grassland (S = 0.8). The study area relatively has considerable numbers of medium- and large-sized mammal species, and urgent conservation action is required to reduce the emerging threats (hunting, charcoal production, agriculture, and investment expansion) and ensure survival of mammal species.

Research Article

Contact Toxicity Effects of Selected Organic Leaf Extracts of Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsl.) A. Gray and Vernonia lasiopus (O. Hoffman) against Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

Maize weevil (Sitophilus zeamais) infestation results in a substantial reduction in the quantity and deterioration of the quality of stored maize. Most farmers control weevils using conventional pesticides which are usually associated with several human health risks as well as intoxication of the fauna and flora. However, bioinsecticides form an alternative intervention since they possess fewer side effects on human health, are ecofriendly, and are readily available. This study sought to validate and document, in a systematic way, the pesticidal properties of the species Tithonia diversifolia and Vernonia lasiopus used for many years by many people of the world on S. zeamais. The plant leaf samples were obtained from Embu County, Kenya. Dichloromethane and ethyl acetate solvents were used to extract active phytochemicals from the dried plant sample powder. The GC-MS analysis of the obtained extracts was performed at ICIPE laboratories to identify their phytochemical compositions. Twenty grams of maize grains were put in 50 ml plastic vials and admixed with different treatments. The positive control group was treated with Actellic Super™, while the negative control was treated with the respective extracting solvent only. The experimental groups were separately treated with the plant leaf extracts at doses of 25, 50, 75, and 100%. After treatment, each of the six groups was infested with 10 male S. zeamais and weevil mortality as a result of contact toxicity of the treatments was assessed at 6, 24, 48, 72, and 96 hours after the insects were exposed to the extracts. Results of the study indicate that the selected organic leaf extracts of T. diversifolia and V. lasiopus possessed significant contact insecticidal effects that ranged between 1.67 to 99.98%. Furthermore, the GC-MS analysis revealed several active biocompounds in T. diversifolia and V. lasiopus extracts, which are known for their considerable insecticidal effects. Our data suggest that the organic leaf extracts of T. diversifolia and V. lasiopus have considerable insecticidal properties and would, therefore, be a valuable bioprotective agent for stored maize grains against S. zeamais.

International Journal of Zoology
 Journal metrics
Acceptance rate27%
Submission to final decision80 days
Acceptance to publication37 days
CiteScore1.200
Journal Citation Indicator-
Impact Factor-
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