Journal of Immunology Research
 Journal metrics
Acceptance rate45%
Submission to final decision61 days
Acceptance to publication37 days
CiteScore5.600
Journal Citation Indicator0.600
Impact Factor4.818

Article of the Year 2020

Toll-Like Receptors in Natural Killer Cells and Their Application for Immunotherapy

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 Journal profile

Journal of Immunology Research provides a platform for scientists and clinicians working in different and diverse areas of immunology and therapy.

 Editor spotlight

Chief Editor, Professor Holland, has a background focusing on researching the development of conjunctival fibrosis and the characterisation of immune responses to potential C. trachomatis vaccine candidates.

 Special Issues

We currently have a number of Special Issues open for submission. Special Issues highlight emerging areas of research within a field, or provide a venue for a deeper investigation into an existing research area.

Latest Articles

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Research Article

Panax quinquefolius Polysaccharides Ameliorate Antibiotic-Associated Diarrhoea Induced by Lincomycin Hydrochloride in Rats via the MAPK Signaling Pathways

American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius L.) is an herbal medicine with polysaccharides as its important active ingredient. The purpose of this research was to identify the effects of the polysaccharides of P. quinquefolius (WQP) on rats with antibiotic-associated diarrhoea (AAD) induced by lincomycin hydrochloride. WQP was primarily composed of galacturonic acid, glucose, galactose, and arabinose. The yield, total sugar content, uronic acid content, and protein content were 6.71%, 85.2%, 31.9%, and 2.1%, respectively. WQP reduced the infiltration of inflammatory cells into the ileum and colon, reduced the IL-1β, IL-6, IL-17A, and TNF-α levels, increased the levels of IL-4 and IL-10 in colon tissues, improved the production of acetate and propionate, regulated the gut microbiota diversity and composition, improved the relative richness of Lactobacillus and Bacteroides, and reduced the relative richness of Blautia and Coprococcus. The results indicated that WQP can enhance the recovery of the intestinal structure in rats, reduce inflammatory cytokine levels, improve short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) levels, promote recovery of the gut microbiota and intestinal mucosal barrier, and alleviate antibiotic-related side effects such as diarrhoea and microbiota dysbiosis caused by lincomycin hydrochloride. We found that WQP can protect the intestinal barrier by increasing Occludin and Claudin-1 expression. In addition, WQP inhibited the MAPK inflammatory signaling pathway to improve the inflammatory status. This study provides a foundation for the treatment of natural polysaccharides to reduce antibiotic-related side effects.

Review Article

Recent Advances and Next Breakthrough in Immunotherapy for Cancer Treatment

With the huge therapeutic potential, cancer immunotherapy is expected to become the mainstream of cancer treatment. In the current field of cancer immunotherapy, there are mainly five types. Immune checkpoint blockade therapy is one of the most promising directions. Adoptive cell therapy is an important component of cancer immunotherapy. The therapy with the cancer vaccine is promising cancer immunotherapy capable of cancer prevention. Cytokine therapy is one of the pillars of cancer immunotherapy. Oncolytic immunotherapy is a promising novel component of cancer immunotherapy, which with significantly lower incidence of serious adverse reactions. The recent positive results of many clinical trials with cancer immunotherapy may herald good clinical prospects. But there are still many challenges in the broad implementation of immunotherapy. Such as the immunotherapy cannot act on all tumors, and it has serious adverse effects including but not limited to nonspecific and autoimmunity inflammation. Here, we center on recent progress made within the last 5 years in cancer immunotherapy. And we discuss the theoretical background, as well as the opportunities and challenges of cancer immunotherapy.

Research Article

Ebosin Attenuates the Inflammatory Responses Induced by TNF-α through Inhibiting NF-κB and MAPK Pathways in Rat Fibroblast-Like Synoviocytes

Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) lies at the apex of signal transduction cascades that results in induced destruction of joints in rheumatoid arthritis. It is therefore of great medicinal interest to modulate the cellular responses to TNF-α. Ebosin, a novel exopolysaccharide derived from Streptomyces sp, has been demonstrated to have remarkable therapeutic actions on collagen-induced arthritis in rats, while it also suppressed the production of IL-1β, TNF-α, and IL-6 at both mRNA and protein levels in cultured fibroblast-like synoviocytes. In order to further understand the potential mechanisms involved in the anti-inflammatory effects of ebosin at molecular level, we investigated the impact of it on the activation of MAPK and NF-κB pathways following TNF-α induced in fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS). The results showed that the phosphorylation levels of TNF-α-induced p38, JNK1, JNK2, IKKα, IKKβ, and IκB, as well as NF-κB nuclear translocation, were reduced significantly in FLS cells in response to ebosin. Furthermore, we proved that ebosin decreased the level of NF-κB in the nucleus and blocked the DNA-binding ability of NF-κB using electrophoresis mobility gel shift assay. Besides, low levels of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-1 and MMP-3) and chemokines (interleukin-8 and RANTES) were found in TNF-α-stimulated fibroblast-like synoviocytes treated with ebosin. These results indicate that ebosin can suppress a range of activities in both MAPK and NF-κB pathways induced by TNF-α in rat fibroblast-like synoviocytes, which provides a rationale for examining the use of ebosin as a potential therapeutic candidate for rheumatic arthritis.

Research Article

Autologous Cytokine-Induced Killer Cell Immunotherapy Enhances Chemotherapy Efficacy against Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis

Objective. Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) causes persistent infection and challenges tuberculosis control worldwide. T cell-mediated immunity plays a critical role in controlling Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection, and therefore, enhancing Mtb-specific T cell immune responses represents a promising therapeutic strategy against TB. Cytokine-induced killer (CIK) immunotherapy is based on autologous infusion of in vitro expanded bulk T cells, which include both pathogen-specific and nonspecific T cells from patient peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) into TB patients. Preclinical mouse studies have shown that the adoptive T cell therapy inhibited Mtb infection. However, the efficacy of CIK immunotherapy in the treatment of MDR-TB infection has not been evaluated in clinical trials. Methods. We performed a retrospective study of MDR-TB patients who received CIK immunotherapy in combination with anti-TB chemotherapy and those who had standard chemotherapy. Results. Our results showed that CIK immunotherapy in combination with anti-TB chemotherapy treatment increased the conversion rate of sputum smear and Mtb culture, alleviated symptoms, improved lesion absorption, and increased recovery. The kinetics of serology and immunology index monitoring data showed good safety profiles for the CIK treatment. Conclusion. Our study has provided strong evidence that CIK immunotherapy in combination with anti-TB chemotherapy is beneficial for MDR-TB patients. A multicenter clinical trial is warranted to evaluate CIK as a new immune therapy for MDR-TB.

Research Article

Dysbiosis of Gastric Mucosal Fungal Microbiota in the Gastric Cancer Microenvironment

Background. Microbes have been shown to contribute to gastric cancer (GC), gastric bacteria and viruses are associated with gastric carcinogenesis. However, the relationship between gastric fungi and GC is still unclear. Our aim was to evaluate the gastric fungal microbiota in the GC microenvironment. Methods. Gastric fungal microbiome profiling was performed with internal transcribed spacer (ITS) rDNA sequencing in primary tumor and corresponding paired normal mucosal tissues from 61 GC patients. Differences in microbial composition, taxa diversity, and predicted function were further analyzed. Results. Dysbiosis of gastric mucosal fungal microbiome was observed between the tumor and normal groups in GC. The tumor group had a higher abundance of certain taxa than the normal group. In the taxa classification, the abundances of Pezizomycetes, Sordariales, Chaetomiaceae, and Rozellomycota were lower in the tumor group than in the normal group. At the genus level, Solicoccozyma () was found in higher abundance and was differentially enriched in the tumor group with Lefse analysis. Additionally, Solicoccozyma accounted for 0.3% of gastric fungi in the GC microenvironment. Twenty-seven of the 61 GC patients showed positive Solicoccozyma expression in tumors. Solicoccozyma-positive expression in tumors was associated with the Bormann classification and nerve invasion. Solicoccozyma was considered a gastric fungal marker to classify stage I and stage II-IV GC patients with an area under the receiver-operating curve (AUC) of 0.7061, as well as to classify the nerve invasive and nonnerve invasive tumors from GC patients with an AUC of 0.6978. Functional prediction indicated that the positive expression of Solicoccozyma in tumors was associated with the amino acid- and carbohydrate-related metabolic pathways in GC. Conclusions. This study revealed a novel perspective on the role of Solicoccozyma in tumors and a theoretical basis for therapeutic targets against GC.

Review Article

The Effects of Vitamins and Micronutrients on Helicobacter pylori Pathogenicity, Survival, and Eradication: A Crosstalk between Micronutrients and Immune System

Helicobacter pylori as a class I carcinogen is correlated with a variety of severe gastroduodenal diseases; therefore, H. pylori eradication has become a priority to prevent gastric carcinogenesis. However, due to the emergence and spread of multidrug and single drug resistance mechanisms in H. pylori, as well as serious side effects of currently used antibiotic interventions, achieving successful H. pylori eradication has become exceedingly difficult. Recent studies expressed the intention of seeking novel strategies to improve H. pylori management and reduce the risk of H. pylori-associated intestinal and extragastrointestinal disorders. For which, vitamin supplementation has been demonstrated in many studies to have a tight interaction with H. pylori infection, either directly through the regulation of the host inflammatory pathways or indirectly by promoting the host immune response. On the other hand, H. pylori infection is reported to result in micronutrient malabsorption or deficiency. Furthermore, serum levels of particular micronutrients, especially vitamin D, are inversely correlated to the risk of H. pylori infection and eradication failure. Accordingly, vitamin supplementation might increase the efficiency of H. pylori eradication and reduce the risk of drug-related adverse effects. Therefore, this review aims at highlighting the regulatory role of micronutrients in H. pylori-induced host immune response and their potential capacity, as intrinsic antioxidants, for reducing oxidative stress and inflammation. We also discuss the uncovered mechanisms underlying the molecular and serological interactions between micronutrients and H. pylori infection to present a perspective for innovative in vitro investigations, as well as novel clinical implications.

Journal of Immunology Research
 Journal metrics
Acceptance rate45%
Submission to final decision61 days
Acceptance to publication37 days
CiteScore5.600
Journal Citation Indicator0.600
Impact Factor4.818
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Article of the Year Award: Outstanding research contributions of 2020, as selected by our Chief Editors. Read the winning articles.