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Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism publishes original research articles and review articles covering the broad and multidisciplinary field of human nutrition and metabolism.
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Possible Beneficial Effects of Fresh Pomegranate Juice in SARS-CoV-2 Infection Conditions
Rather than the prophylactic vaccination, any effective synthetic, natural, or nutritional therapy or regimen that may cure or remedy, albeit partially, the complications of SARS-CoV-2 should be highly acknowledged. Here, we reviewed and discussed possible beneficial biological effects of pomegranate juice in such diseased condition of viral infection based on the current published evidence (direct and indirect) and owing to the robust evidence that fresh pomegranate juice is highly rich with unique bioactive compounds that are approved in various occasions to be effective in several chronic diseased conditions. All related references that serve our aim are accessed through available electronic databases, particularly PubMed and Scopus. In summary, there is accepted evidence that pomegranate juice may be beneficial in SARS-CoV-2 infection conditions, especially for patients with the clinical history of chronic diseases such as hypertension, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and cancer. However, the interventional studies that directly probe and confirm the effectiveness of fresh pomegranate juice in the management of SARS-CoV-2 infection are mandatory.
Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice of Weaning among Mothers in Najran Region, Saudi Arabia, 2021
Background. Weaning is a complex process of a gradual introduction of complementary foods to the infant’s diet. It is recommended that solid food is introduced between 6 and 12 months of age. Weaning is difficult and potentially dangerous time for infants’ growth and mother’s education is an established determinant of its success. Little is known about weaning attitudes or practice among mothers in Najran Region of Saudi Arabia. Method. The study is a cross-sectional questionnaire-based observational investigation using random sampling scheme. We utilized ordinal logistic regression modelling to evaluate the relationship between demographic variables and knowledge level among mothers. Results. The total number included was n = 385 mothers who agreed to take part in the study. Good satisfactory knowledge rate was n = 135, 35.1%. Knowledge was mostly sought from other mothers (n = 102, 26.5%), followed by reliance on their own experience (n = 82, 21.3%). Seeking doctors’ advice was associated with better knowledge levels. Worse adjusted knowledge scores were associated with bottle feeding (OR = 0.5383, ), using cerelac preparations (OR = 0.0316, ), development of weaning symptoms (OR = 0.5869, ), seeking other mothers’ advice (OR = 0.4750, ), and feeding babies under 4 times daily (OR = 0.2742, ). Mother education did not have significant impact on knowledge scores. Discussion. We confirmed, in this work, that knowledge levels were alarmingly unsatisfactory about weaning among our participants. Women were likely following local customs in terms of their choice of weaning methods even among the well-educated. The association between seeking doctors’ advice and better knowledge should be utilized in future educational interventions. Underfeeding babies of below 4 times daily was correlated substantially with poorer knowledge score. This could be viewed as reverse causality, as clearly more knowledgeable mothers are expected to stick to optimum feeding frequency. Recommendations. Communication channels between physicians and mothers need to be opened and widened through focused educational programmes. Poor knowledge is clearly associated with infant underfeeding and difficulties in recognizing weaning symptoms. Such points need to be emphasized in design of health education packages to nursing mothers. Research on knowledge about weaning should focus on its association with traditional weaning methods and bottle feeding.
The Predictive Role of Parathyroid Hormone for Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease following Bariatric Surgery
Background. Morbid obesity is frequently complicated by chronic liver diseases, including nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), and fibrosis. Parathyroid hormone (PTH) is found to be elevated in morbid obesity due to the defective hepatic metabolism of vitamin D. Bariatric surgery is performed to help patients with BMI>40 kg/m2 to effectively lose weight, particularly in patients with obesity who are afflicted with complications such as NAFLD/NASH. Objective. This study aimed to evaluate the PTH level as a predictor of hepatic function in individuals with morbid obesity who have undergone bariatric surgery. Methods. Ninety subjects with morbid obesity referred for Roux en-Y gastric bypass surgery were recruited. After IRB approval, demographic profiles, anthropometric factors, liver biopsy, and laboratory tests were obtained. The two-dimensional shear wave elastography (2D-SWE) technique was applied to assess hepatic stiffness. Results. A significant reduction occurred six months after bariatric surgery in the anthropometric indices , hepatic elasticity , alanine aminotransferase , serum alkaline phosphatase , gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) , and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease fibrosis score (NFS) . Serum PTH concentration was not predictive of postsurgical liver fibrosis and steatosis at six months but could predict weight loss success rate. No significant alteration in serum PTH levels was observed between presurgical vs. postsurgical time points. Conclusion. A significant reduction was observed in the anthropometric parameters, liver enzymes, and hepatic elasticity after bariatric surgery. No significant effect was found on PTH levels.
Dyslipidemia Diagnosis and Treatment: Risk Stratification in Children and Adolescents
Dyslipidemias or dyslipoproteinemias are quantitative changes in total cholesterol concentration, respective fractions, or triglycerides in the plasma. Evidence supported that dyslipidemia in childhood is associated with atherosclerosis in adulthood, and early identification and treatment potentially reduce cardiovascular risk in adulthood, which is the principal cause of morbidity and mortality in developed countries. Dyslipidemias can result from primary lipoprotein metabolism changes due to different genetic causes (primary dyslipidemias) or as a consequence of exogenous factors or other pathologies (secondary dyslipidemias). Therefore, the combined dyslipidemias result from the association of important epigenetic and environmental influences with risk factors for cardiovascular disease. The criterion for lipid metabolism screening at young ages is not widely accepted and possibly follows a universal or directed screening strategy. Additionally, little is known about its long-term effects or possible risk-benefit despite the growing tendency to start pharmacological therapy. Therefore, this study aimed to review the available bibliography on dyslipidemia in pediatric age to present a practical and structured approach to dyslipidemia that focuses on screening, risk stratification for atherosclerotic disease, and therapeutic approach.
Protein Supplement Perceptions, Use, and Associated Performance in Young Lebanese Resistance-Training Athletes
The aims of this study were first to evaluate the nutritional knowledge, perception, and source of nutrition information among resistance-trained individuals consuming protein supplements (PS), to determine whether a correlation exists between nutrition-related knowledge and the use of PS, and finally to compare the impact of PS use among participants classified as nonprotein supplement users (NPSUs) and protein supplement users (PSUs). A cross-sectional study was conducted among a highly selected group of resistance-specialized trainees (RSTs). Among the 100 RST participants recruited, the Internet and coaches were the most common source of nutritional information. About one-third of participants believed that there were no health risks after consuming PS. Both NPSU and PSU exhibit performance improvement that was significantly lessened in PSU compared to NPSU. This study demonstrated that RST may have misconceptions regarding the benefits of PS usage to increase strength. Our data also suggest a shortage of knowledge about PS and confirm that PSUs lack proper professional guidance. These findings highlight the need for proper monitoring to ensure adequate perception, awareness, and safety in the Lebanese sports sector.
Sustainability of One WASH Facilities in the Rural Settings of North Shoa Zone, Amhara Region, North East Ethiopia, 2020
Background. Water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) is considered as one term and recognizes that the three are closely related. The Government of Ethiopia launched the programme to improve the way water, and sanitation is provided to the people improving the WASH financing effectively, decreasing school children drop-out rates and improving the health status. The main aim of this study is to assess factors related to the sustainability of one WASH facilities in the rural settings of North Shoa zone, North East Ethipia. Methods. Institutional- and community-based cross-sectional study was conducted. Taking the total number of woredas in the zone, 20 of them were rural project woredas during the first phase of the program and clustered in 6 subzones, and 6 woredas had been selected randomly by the lottery method from each subzones. A total of 768 households were randomly selected based on the proportional size of the number of households in each woreda. A structured questionnaire was used for this study. The data were collected via interview. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to identify independent predictors with and confidence interval of 95% considering statistically significant. Result. Among a total of 768 HHs intended to be involved, 689 were involved with 90% response rate. The communities WASH facilities were assessed to be unsustainable by more than half of the respondents (372 (54 percent)) HHs replies. Distance from current water source, community participation during water construction, practice of CLTSH in the village, declaration of open defecation free (ODF) in the village, and existence of health institution near the village were found positively associated with sustainability of one WASH facilities. Conclusion. The sustainability of WASH facilities was revealed to be relatively low. Considering distance from water source, community participation, practice of CLTSH in the village, village declared ODF, and existence of health institution are mandatory to all stake holders participating in WASH activities before, during, and after the implementation of the project.