Chemotherapy of Capecitabine plus Temozolomide for Refractory Pituitary Adenoma after Tumor Resection and Its Impact on Serum Prolactin, IGF-1, and Growth HormoneRead the full article
Journal of Oncology publishes research related to breast cancer, lung cancer, gastrointestinal cancer, skin cancer, head and neck cancer, paediatric oncology, neurooncology as well as genitourinary cancer.
Chief Editor, Professor Bruno Vincenzi, is an Associate Professor of Medical Oncology at University Campus Bio-Medico, Italy. His research interests include urogenital neoplasms and the pathophysiology and treatment of bone metastases.
Latest ArticlesMore articles
Synergistic Effect of Erastin Combined with Nutlin-3 on Vestibular Schwannoma Cells as p53 Modulates Erastin-Induced Ferroptosis Response
Vestibular schwannoma (VS) is a rare neurotology neoplasm that results in partial neurological defects. As we know, a comprehensive understanding of basic mechanisms and targeted therapy is vital for disease management. In VS, p53 has been proved to suppress tumor progression via a cooperative with the key protein, merlin, as well as regulation of the cell cycle. However, there are more potential mechanisms of p53 in VS needed to exploit. First, via genome-wide RNA expression analysis, we identified differentially expressed genes in VS compared with normal nerves, and then, bioinformatics analyses were used to analyze these differential expression data and suggested a high level of enrichment of cysteine and glutathione metabolism pathways in VS. Meanwhile, we observed a downregulation of SLC7A11/xCT, a component of the cystine/glutamate antiporter (also known as system xc−) involved in cystine uptake. Next, for a deeper study, our group extracted tumor cells from vestibular schwannoma tissues and established two immortalized cell lines named JEI-001 and JEI-002. Secondly, in our established cells, we demonstrated that ferroptosis participated in erastin-induced growth inhibition. As a novel cell death process, ferroptosis driven by iron-mediated lipid reactive oxygen species (lipid ROS), as well as cysteine and glutathione metabolism. Furthermore, ferroptosis contributes to the inhibitory effects of tumor suppressor p53. Here, we show that p53 sensitizes schwannoma cells to ferroptosis by repressing expression of SLC7A11/xCT. Finally, erastin combined with Nutlin-3, which s to p53 activation, triggered antitumor effects of ferroptosis on the growth of schwannoma cells in vitro. These findings present potential mechanism of p53 in schwannomas and raise the possibility of treatment strategies directed against this pathogenesis.
Prp19 Facilitated p21-Dependent Senescence of Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells
Introduction. Evidence suggests that the role of senescence in the development of cancer is context-dependent. An orthologue of human pre-mRNA processing factor 19 (Prp19) attenuates the senescence of human endothelial cells. Prp19 has been reported to be involved in the progression of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). This work aims to investigate the effect of Prp19 on the senescence of HCC. Materials and Methods. Senescence of L02 cells and HCC cells under different stimuli was detected through cell cycle analysis, SA-β-gal staining, and senescence associated secretory phenotype analysis. The relationship between Prp19 and senescence-related proteins was evaluated using real-time RT-PCR, western blot assay, and immunohistochemistry. Subcutaneous xenograft tumors in nude mice were used to evaluate the role of Prp19 on senescence in vivo. Data analysis was carried out using GraphPad Prism 6. Results. Prp19 facilitated the senescence of L02 cells and HCC cells under different stresses. Prp19 positively modulated p21 expression in the mRNA level. Downregulation of Prp19 promoted the growth of subcutaneous xenograft tumors generated by HCC cell lines. Conclusions. Prp19 may promote senescence of HCC cells via regulating p21 expression.
Ogt Demonstrated Conspicuous Clinical Significance in Cancers, from Pan-Cancer to Small-Cell Lung Cancer
The clinical progression of small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) remains pessimistic. The aim of the present study was to promote the understanding of the clinical significance and mechanism of O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) transferase (OGT) in SCLC. Wilcoxon tests, standardized mean difference (SMD), and Kruskal–Wallis tests were utilized to compare OGT level differences among the experimental and control groups. The univariate Cox regression analysis, Kaplan–Meier curves, and receiver operating characteristic curves were applied to determine OGT’s clinical relevance in cancers. The Spearman correlation analysis and enrichment analysis were utilized to explore the underlying mechanisms of OGT in cancers. For the first time in the field, we provide an overview of OGT in 32 cancers using a large number of samples (n = 21,196), determining distinct OGT expression in 25 cancers and its prognosis effects in 12 cancers. Furthermore, using 950 samples from multiple sources, upregulated OGT was found in both mRNA and protein levels in SCLC (SMD = 0.93, 95% CI [0.24, 1.63]). Higher OGT levels represented a more unfavorable disease-free interval for SCLC patients (). The research also identified OGT expression as a potential marker for SCLC prediction (sensitivity = 0.79, specificity = 0.86, and AUC = 0.88). The high expression of OGT in SCLC may result from the positive regulation of two transcription factors—DEK and XRN2. We primarily investigated the underlying mechanisms of OGT in SCLC. Herein, based on the analyses from pan-cancer to SCLC, OGT demonstrated conspicuous clinical significance. OGT may be an underlying biomarker for the treatment and identification of some cancers, including SCLC.
A Comparative Analysis of Efficacy of Apatinib Combined with Transarterial Chemoembolization and Transarterial Chemoembolization Alone in the Treatment of Hepatocellular Carcinoma with Portal Vein Tumor Thrombus
Background. The treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients with portal vein tumor thrombus (PVTT) remains controversial due to the limited effect of sorafenib. The aim of the study was to investigate whether apatinib could improve the efficacy of transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) for patients with HCC complicated by PVTT. Methods. The study included 109 patients with HCC and PVTT who received TACE combined with apatinib (TACE + apatinib) (53 patients) or TACE alone (56 patients) between June 2015 and January 2019. Propensity score matching (PSM) analysis was used to reduce the potential selection bias. Overall survival time (OS) and time to progression (TTP) were used to evaluate the efficacy of TACE + apatinib and TACE alone. Results. Before PSM, TACE + apatinib significantly improved median TTP (7.0 vs. 3.0 months, ) and median OS (15.0 vs. 7.0 months, ) when compared with TACE alone. After PSM, the median TTP was significantly longer in the TACE + apatinib group, 6.0 months, than in the TACE alone group, 3.0 months (), and the median OS was significantly longer in the TACE + apatinib group, 14.0 months, than in the TACE alone group, 7.0 months (). Subgroup analysis revealed that, except for patients with Child–Pugh class B, the patients with or without extrahepatic metastases and with Child–Pugh class A had longer TTP and OS after the combined TACE + apatinib treatment than after TACE alone. Conclusion. The combination of TACE + apatinib might be an effective and safe treatment for HCC patients with PVTT.
Olanzapine 5 mg for Nausea and Vomiting in Patients with Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Receiving Cisplatin-Based Concurrent Chemoradiotherapy
Purpose. To explore the efficacy and safety of adding olanzapine (5 mg or 10 mg) to 5-hydroxytryptamine type 3 receptor antagonists (5-HT3 RA), neurokinin-1 receptor antagonists (NK1 RA), and dexamethasone for nausea and vomiting in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) receiving cisplatin-based concurrent chemoradiotherapy. Methods. Patients receiving olanzapine 5 mg or 10 mg combined with 5-HT3 RA, NK1 RA, and dexamethasone during the cisplatin-based concurrent chemoradiotherapy were included. The primary endpoint was the complete response (CR) (no vomiting) rate, and the secondary endpoint was the incidence of no nausea. Results. A total of 150 chemotherapy cycles were administrated for 88 patients (75 in the olanzapine 5 mg group and 75 in the olanzapine 10 mg group). The proportions of CR in the olanzapine 5 mg group were comparable to those in the olanzapine 10 mg group in acute (93.3% vs. 94.7%, ), delayed (76% vs. 78.7%, ), and overall phase (73.3% vs. 77.3%, ). Moreover, no nausea rates were also comparable between the two groups in acute (76% vs. 78.7%, ), delayed (54.7% vs. 60%, ), and overall period (50.7% vs. 57.3%, ). Regarding the adverse effects, the incidence of somnolence in the 10 mg group (58.6%) was significantly higher than that in the 5 mg group (41.3%) (), while constipation (20.0% vs. 24.0%, ) and hiccups (9.3% vs. 10.6%, ) rates were comparable in two groups. Conclusions. Patients receiving olanzapine plus standard antiemetic therapy has excellent antiemetic effect in NPC patients receiving cisplatin-based concurrent chemoradiotherapy, and patients with olanzapine 5 mg have a similar antiemetic effect and lower adverse effects compared with those with olanzapine 10 mg.
Correlation between Ultrasonographic Appearance of Papillary Thyroid Microcarcinoma and BRAF V600E Mutation
The study was conducted to investigate the correlation between the ultrasonographic appearance of a thyroid nodule and the BRAF V600E mutation. Patients with thyroid nodules (), for which BRAF V600E testing and cytopathology analysis were performed, and who underwent subsequent surgery for nodule resection were enrolled in this study. For each patient, color Doppler ultrasonography was performed to observe the variables of the nodules. The nodules were then characterized using the thyroid imaging reporting and data system classification TI-RADS. Furthermore, the ultrasonographic appearance of the control group, encompassing patients with nodular thyroid goiters, and the case group, encompassing patients with papillary thyroid microcarcinoma (PTMC), was statically analyzed. Similarly, a statistical analysis of the ultrasonographic appearance of the BRAF V600E-positive and BRAF V600E-negative subgroups was also performed. The accuracy was significantly different for the corresponding values when color Doppler ultrasonography, BRAF V600E testing, or cytopathology alone was used for diagnosis. There were significant differences in the ultrasonographic appearance variables between the control and case groups. Comparing with the BRAF V600E-negative subgroup of the case group, the ultrasonographic appearances of the BRAF V600E-positive subgroup showed less circumscribed and more irregularly shaped nodules, with significantly different aspect ratios of >1. The combination of BRAF V600E testing and color Doppler ultrasonography or cytopathology improved the accuracy of the PTMC diagnose. We found that the ultrasonographic appearance of thyroid nodules was related to PTMC.