Article of the Year 2020
Clinical and Diagnostic Significance of Lactate Dehydrogenase and Its Isoenzymes in AnimalsRead the full article
Veterinary Medicine International publishes original research articles and review articles in all areas of veterinary research. Topics covered include the biological basis of disease, as well as diagnosis, prevention, treatment, and epidemiology.
Chief Editor, Dr Sumanta Nandi, is based at the National Institute of Animal Nutrition and Physiology, India.
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Association between Serum Trace Elements Levels, Steroid Concentrations, and Reproductive Disorders in Ewes and Does
This study aimed to investigate the association of different reproductive disorders with the status of serum trace elements and steroid hormones in ewes and goats. This study included 131 barren and 11 fertile (control) ewes and 94 barren and 9 fertile (control) goats. Animals were examined gynecologically for reproductive soundness. The animals were bled, and their serum was harvested and assayed for manganese (Mn), selenium (Se), iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), estrogen (E2), and progesterone (P4) levels. The results showed that genital affections were associated with significant changes in serum Se (), Fe (), and Zn () levels in ewes, as well as Mn () levels in goats. Ewes and goats with cystic ovaries had higher serum Se, Fe, and Zn levels () than ewes with uterine affections, ovarian inactivity, and controls. Ovarian inactivity was linked to low Se levels in ewes and low Se and Zn levels in goats (). Ewes and goats with estrogen-dominant reproductive disorders had higher Se (), Fe (), and Zn () compared with the control group. Se () and Zn () were lower in ewes and goats affected with P4-dominant genital disorders compared with the control group. It can be concluded that the reproductive disorders are associated with changes in the level of trace elements in blood of ewes and goats. There is a reciprocal relationship between the levels of estrogen and progesterone with those of the trace elements in serum of ewes and goats.
Serological Evidence of Antibodies to Rift Valley Fever Virus in Wild and Domestic Animals in Bauchi State, Nigeria
Rift Valley fever (RVF) is an arthropod-borne zoonotic disease responsible for severe outbreaks in livestock and humans with concomitant economic losses in many countries in sub-Saharan Africa. The study, therefore, investigated the seroprevalence of the Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) among wild and domestic animals. Blood samples were collected between 2013 and 2015 from 106 wild animals, 300 cattle (Bos indicus), and 200 horses (Equus caballus), respectively, in Yankari Game Reserve (YGR) and Sumu Wildlife Park (SWP) in Bauchi state, Nigeria. Harvested sera from blood were evaluated for the presence of anti-RVFV IgM/IgG antibodies. The overall seroprevalence in cattle was 11.3% ( = 0.677; 95% CI: 0.624–0.730) and in wildlife was 8.5% ( = 0.006; 95% CI: 0.00–0.60). The diversity of wildlife species sampled indicated seropositivity of 36.0% in waterbuck (Kobus ellipsiprymus), 25.0% in elephant (Loxodonta africana), 12.5% in eland (Taurotragus oryx), and 8.3% in wildebeest (Connochaetes taurinus). Whereas, samples from zebra (Equus quagga crawshayi), kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros), and hartebeest (Alcelaphus buselaphus caama) did not show detectable antibodies to RVFV, and seroprevalence in female (15.0%) wildlife species was higher than in males (4.5%) ( = 0.061). Classification of cattle into breed and sex showed no significant difference in seropositivity. Seropositivity of 12.0% was observed in White Fulani, 12.1% in Red Bororo, and 7.8% in Sokoto Gudali breeds of cattle ( = 0.677). Whereas, seropositivity of 13.6% was observed in females and 6.4% observed in males ( = 0.068). This study indicated the presence of antibodies to RVFV among some wild animals and cattle in the absence of a reported outbreak in the study area. The circulation of RVFV in the study area may pose a significant health risk to livestock, wildlife, and humans. Therefore, surveillance for RVFV should be intensified targeting mosquito vectors and humans in Bauchi state, Nigeria.
Seroepidemiology of Camel Brucellosis in and around Dire Dawa, Eastern Ethiopia
Brucellosis is an infectious disease in domestic and wild animals with serious zoonotic and economic implication in humans, being more severe in developing countries. The disease is highly prevalent in cattle, camels, and small ruminants in pastoral and agro-pastoral areas in Africa. Here we have investigated the seroepidemiology of camel brucellosis in and around Dire Dawa, eastern Ethiopia, using a cross-sectional study design to determine the seroprevalence of the disease and to identify risk factors that would facilitate the transmission of zoonotic diseases to humans. This study involved testing 350 serum samples from camels and interviewing 120 livestock owners. The modified Rose Bengal plate test (mRBPT) and the complement fixation test (CFT) were used as screening and confirmatory tests, respectively. The overall sero-prevalence of camel brucellosis was found to be 8.3% and 2% using mRBPT and CFT tests, respectively. Among the risk factors assessed, only abortion and body condition disclosed a statistically significant difference with regard to the seropositivity of camel brucellosis. Camel brucellosis is prevalent in eastern Ethiopia and there is a need to execute well-organized disease control and prevention programs and exercise public health education to scale up awareness of the community towards the disease.
Parity of Calving Influences the Likelihood of Calves Having Cryptosporidium spp.
The effect of colostrum on calves’ health status was intensively studied, while the role of transition milk was left underestimated. The common practice is to feed calves with an adequate amount of colostrum immediately after calving and soon after feeding calves are weaned from dams. In this research, calves were not weaned from dams for at least 2 weeks receiving both colostrum and transition milk on demand. Thus, we have recreated natural feeding conditions for calves’ development. We used a stratified sample method to test whether the size of the dairy cattle farms, breed, parity number, season of calving, and length of the dry period affect the likelihood of calves’ infection with Cryptosporidium spp. considering these factors influence both colostrum and transition milk quality. The main results showed that 26.1% of calves were positive for the presence of Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts. The presence of clinical signs of diarrhea was recorded in 15% of the positive animals. Regression analysis showed that multiparous cows decrease the chance of calves to have Cryptosporidium spp. by 82%–89%, while cows calved on small farms decrease the chance of calves to have Cryptosporidium spp. by 80%. We suggest that primiparous cows are spending inner resources primarily on their maturation, thereby leaving the prerequisites for the infection of their offspring, while intense farming just increases the chance of unprotected calves to obtain infections.
Antimicrobial Usage in Smallholder Poultry Production in Nigeria
The indiscriminate use of antimicrobials in livestock production is of increasing concern due to the threat of antimicrobial resistance in both humans and animals. Much emphasis has been placed on intensively managed poultry production systems, which routinely use antimicrobials as against smallholder poultry production systems (SPPS). Therefore, this study investigated the use of antimicrobials among smallholder poultry farmers in Nigeria, and compared the prevalence of antimicrobial drug use against the practice of ethnoveterinary medicine (EVM). A cross-sectional study was conducted in five states (agroecologies) of Nigeria using structured questionnaires administered on a total of 350 farmers. The practice of EVM was prevalent among most of the farmers (39%). The western method (pharmaceuticals) was practiced by a large proportion of farmers (60%), either solely (25%) or in combination with EVM (35%). Antimicrobials were used primarily for treatment and prevention of diseases (78%). Semi-scavenging system of production had the highest proportion (49%) of farmers using antimicrobials, compared to semi-intensive (37%) and scavenging (14%) systems. Gender (χ2 = 9.30, = 0.01), and location (χ2 = 216.86, ≤ 0.001), influenced farmers’ choice of methods for bird treatment. Education (odds ratio [OR] odds ratio [OR] 3.06, 95% CI 2.10–4.44), income (OR 1.99, 95% CI 1.10–3.59) and management system (OR 1.97, CI% 1.1–3.45) were most associated with antimicrobial use. Critically important antibiotics, with lower to higher risk of antimicrobial resistance, were used by farmers (40%). These findings showed the indiscriminate use of antimicrobials by farmers and the potential risk of antimicrobial resistance within the SPPS in Nigeria.
Antimicrobial and Cytotoxicity Activities of Medicinal Plants against Salmonella gallinarum Isolated from Chickens
Medicinal plants have been the good source of treatment for different ailments of humans as well as animals for centuries. However, in Tanzania, few plants were investigated for their efficacy against various diseases of chickens. In the present study, four medicinal plants were investigated against Salmonella gallinarum isolated from chickens. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) using the broth microdilution methods and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBCs) were used to evaluate the activities of plants against chicken salmonellosis. For the safety of chickens against the toxicity of plants, the cytotoxicity assay was determined using a brine shrimp lethality test. Aloe secundiflora leaf ethyl acetate (ALEA), Aloe rabaiensis leaf methanolic (ArM), Aloe rabaiensis leaf ethyl acetate (ArLEA), and Punica granatum leaf ethyl acetate (PGLEA) extracts exhibited the highest MIC (0.3906 mg/mL) and MBC (3.125 mg/mL), respectively. The Dolichos kilimandscharicus tuber ethyl acetate (DTEA) and Dolichos kilimandscharicus tuber pet ether (DTPE) extracts displayed MIC of 1.563 mg/mL and 12.50 mg/mL and MBC of 12.50 mg/mL and 25.50 mg/mL, respectively. The highest LC50 values exhibited in Dolichos kilimandscharicus ranged from 7.937 × 10−4 mg/mL to 7.242 × 10−2 mg/mL for pet ether and methanolic extracts, respectively, while ALEA extract exhibited LC50 of 7.645 × 10−3 mg/mL. Generally, the extracts with MIC 0.3906 mg/mL and MBC 3.125 mg/mL demonstrated the highest antibacterial activity with low toxicity efficient to manage chicken salmonellosis. Dolichos kilimandscharicus, which exhibited higher toxicity, warrants further investigation on insecticidal and anticancer agents.