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Adsorption Science & Technology publishes original research and review articles on the topic of adsorption.
Chief Editor, Dr Ashleigh Fletcher, is based at the University of Strathclyde, UK. Her current research focuses on adsorption processes.
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Thermodynamics and Mechanism of the Adsorption of Heavy Metal Ions on Keratin Biomasses for Wastewater Detoxification
The analysis of thermodynamics and mechanism of the adsorption of cadmium, chromium, copper, and lead ions from aqueous solution with two keratin-based biomaterials, namely, human hair and sheep fur, is reported in this paper. The effect of initial ion concentration, temperature, pH, contact time, and biomaterial amount on the removal of these heavy metal ions using these keratinous adsorbents was studied. The adsorption of heavy metal ions was highly dependent on the operating parameters where pH and temperature showed the highest impact. Maximum adsorption capacities of these biomaterials were up to 1.33 and 1.40 mmol/g for chromium ions using human hair and sheep fur, respectively. Adsorption kinetic rates of tested heavy metal ions were calculated via a pseudo-second-order model, and they ranged from 0.054 to 0.261 g/mmol·min. A detailed thermodynamic analysis of lead ion adsorption was performed showing an endothermic removal of this adsorbate with both human hair and sheep fur with adsorption enthalpies of 84.5 and 97.1 kJ/mol, respectively. Statistical physics calculations demonstrated that this heavy metal ion was adsorbed via a multi-interaction mechanism especially for human hair. These keratinous biomaterials showed competitive adsorption capacities especially for chromium ion removal and can outperform commercial activated carbons and other adsorbents reported in literature.
Synthesis and Optimization of Cr (VI) Removal from Aqueous Solution by Activated Carbon with Magnetic Fe3O4Nanoparticles by Response Surface Methodology
In this study, the activated carbon with Fe3O4 nanoparticles was synthesized and employed as an effective tool to remove the Cr (VI) from the aqueous solution. The process inputs like concentration of Cr (VI), the dosage of Fe3O4 nanoparticles in activated carbon, and pH of the aqueous solution were optimized by response surface methodology, and their effects were studied. The statistical analysis by ANOVA showed that the process inputs were significantly affected the removal rate, with the maximum impact provided by the pH of the aqueous solution. The best parameters were identified to be pH of 3, aqueous solution concentration of 12 mg/L, the dosage of 1.5 g/L, and adsorption time of 40 min. SEM, EDS, and FTIR characterized the synthesized activated carbon/Fe3O4 samples with magnetic characteristics. Adsorption isotherms and adsorption kinetics analyzed the chemical stability of the synthesized nanocomposite.
Ribociclib-Loaded Ethylcellulose-Based Nanosponges: Formulation, Physicochemical Characterization, and Cytotoxic Potential against Breast Cancer
In the present study, ribociclib-loaded nanosponges (RCNs) composed of ethylcellulose and polyvinyl alcohol were developed using an emulsion-solvent evaporation method. Preliminary evaluations of the developed RCNs (RCN1 to RCN7) were performed in terms of size, polydispersity index (PDI), zeta potential (ZP), entrapment efficiency (EE), and drug loading (DL), which allowed us to select the optimized formulation. RCN3 was selected as the optimized carrier system with particle size (), PDI (), zeta potential (), EE (), and DL (). Further, the optimized nanosponges (RCN3) were subjected to FTIR, XRD, DSC, and SEM studies, and results confirmed the proper encapsulation of the drug within the porous polymeric matrix. In vitro drug release studies showed that the drug release was significantly enhanced with a maximum drug release through RCN3 formulation () and followed the Higuchi model. Moreover, the RCN3 system showed greater cytotoxicity than free ribociclib (RC) against MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 breast cancer cell lines. The percentage of apoptosis induced by RCN3 was found significantly higher than that of free RC (). Overall, ribociclib-loaded ethylcellulose nanosponges could be a potential nanocarrier to enhance the effectiveness of ribociclib in breast cancer treatment.
Iron Oxide Nanoparticles: Preparation, Characterization, and Assessment of Antimicrobial and Anticancer Activity
Nanotechnology and nanoparticles (NPs) have increasingly been studied as an alternative for antibiotics because of the feasibility to be used in implantable devices both for bacterial detection and infection prevention. The low rate of resistance development against NPs because of its multiple mode of action has contributed to its increased acceptance in clinical setting. Further development of NPs and their anticancer activity against many human cancer cell lines including breast and ovarian have been documented. Fe2O3-NPs could be used for antibacterial and anticancer activity assessment. Iron oxide, apart from being available extensively and cheap, also plays a role in multiple biological processes, making it an interesting metal for NPs. The aim of the present study revolves around generation and characterization of iron oxide Fe2O3-NPs, followed by assessment of its antimicrobial and anticancer activities. Synthesis of Fe2O3-NPs was performed by hydrothermal approach, and its characterization was done by UV-visible, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analyses, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Antimicrobial activity was checked by agar diffusion assay against Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Candida albicans. Anticancer activity of the NPs was assessed using the human cancer cell lines including cervical carcinoma cell line (HeLa) and MCF7. The developed Fe2O3-NPs exhibited a characteristic absorption curve in the 500-600 nm wavelength range by UV-visible analysis, the XRD peaks were found to index the rhombohedral shape, and the FTIR analysis ascertained the bonds and functional groups at wavenumber from 400 to 4000 cm-1. Antimicrobial assay detected significant effect against Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis with zones of inhibition: 21 and 22 mm, respectively. Likewise, Fe2O3-NPs show good activity towards tested fungal strain Candida albicans with zone of inhibition of 24 mm. The 2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay identified significant anticancer activity of the NPs against both cell lines. Our study documents the successful generation and characterization of Fe2O3-NPs having excellent antimicrobial and anticancer activities.
Sustainable Downstream Separation of Itaconic Acid Using Carbon-Based Adsorbents
Separation of itaconic acid from aqueous solution has been explored using various carbon-based adsorbents obtained from the pyrolysis and KOH activation of coconut shell biomass. The best preparation conditions to obtain a tailored adsorbent for itaconic acid purification were identified via a Taguchi experimental design, where its adsorption properties were maximized. The best activated carbon was obtained via coconut shell pyrolysis at 750 °C for 4 h plus an activation with 0.1 KOH and a final treatment at 800 °C for 2 h. This adsorbent showed an adsorption capacity of 4.31 mmol/g at 20 °C and pH 3 with a surface area of 466 m2/g. Itaconic acid separation was exothermic and pH-dependent where electrostatic forces and hydrogen bonding were the main adsorption interactions. Calculated adsorption rate constants for itaconic acid adsorption were 0.44–1.20 h-1. Results of adsorbent characterization analysis indicated the presence of a crystallization of itaconic acid molecules onto the activated carbon surface where 3–4 molecules could interact to form the clusters. This organic acid was recovered from the adsorbent surface via desorption with water or ethanol, thus facilitating its final purification. The best activated carbon obtained in this study is a promising alternative to perform sustainable and energy-efficient downstream separation and purification of itaconic acid produced via fermentation.
Coal Permeability Variation during the Heating Process considering Thermal Expansion and Desorption Shrinkage
In order to explore the influence of coal deformation caused by temperature and desorption on seepage characteristics in the process of heat injection mining of coalbed methane, the permeability test, thermal expansion, and constant temperature adsorption desorption of coal samples under different temperature and stress states were carried out using the high temperature multifunctional triaxial test system, and the influence of thermal expansion and desorption deformation effect on coal permeability in the process of temperature increase is studied. The results show that (1) with the increase of temperature, the sensitivity of coal thermal expansion deformation to temperature decreases gradually. The thermal expansion deformation makes the coal matrix expand, and the seepage channel is squeezed and the permeability decreases. (2) The effect of thermal expansion deformation is related to the porosity of coal. When the porosity of coal is high, the thermal expansion deformation reduces the permeability; on the contrary, the inward expansion of thermal expansion deformation is limited, and the effect on permeability is weakened. (3) The desorption of coal cause matrix shrinkage. The higher the desorption amount, the more obvious the shrinkage and the higher the permeability. Increasing temperature promotes desorption deformation of coal and increases permeability. (4) In the process of increasing temperature, the change of coal permeability is affected by thermal expansion deformation and desorption deformation. With the increase of temperature, when the influence of thermal expansion deformation on coal permeability is dominant, the permeability decreases gradually, and when desorption deformation is dominant on coal permeability, the permeability increases gradually. (5) With the increase of axial pressure, confining pressure, and pore pressure, the decrease of coal porosity is smaller. When the temperature increases, the temperature corresponding to the minimum permeability point is smaller. The research conclusion provides a basis for the technology of heat injection mining coalbed methane.