Article of the Year 2020
Factors Associated with Anxiety and Depression among Diabetes, Hypertension, and Heart Failure Patients at Dessie Referral Hospital, Northeast EthiopiaRead the full article
Behavioural Neurology provides a platform for researchers and clinicians working in the areas of cognitive neuroscience, neuropsychology, and neuropsychiatry.
Behavioural Neurology maintains an Editorial Board of practicing researchers from around the world, to ensure manuscripts are handled by editors expert and up-to-date in the field of study.
Latest ArticlesMore articles
Clinical Factors Predicting Voluntary Driving Cessation among Patients with Parkinson’s Disease
Factors that influence the decision of voluntary driving cessation in patients living with Parkinson’s disease (PD) are still unclear. We aimed to reveal the factors affecting the decision of voluntary driving cessation in patients with PD. This hospital-based cross-sectional study recruited consecutive outpatients with PD. Data on sociodemographic and clinical characteristics and medication use were collected from the patients using semistructured interviews. Cognitive function was evaluated using the Japanese version of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA-J). We excluded patients with dementia or motor impairment (). We divided the patients into two groups, with and without voluntary driving cessation (D: driver; RD: retired driver), and conducted investigations using multivariate logistic regression analyses. Of the 40 patients, 8 (20.0%) voluntarily retired from driving. Patients who decided on driving cessation had a higher prevalence of freezing of gait (FOG) (D vs. RD, 25.0% vs. 87.5%; ) and tended to have lower scores for attention in the MoCA-J (D vs. RD, vs. ; ). Multivariable analysis showed that FOG was independently associated with driving cessation (odds ratio: 14.46, 95% confidence interval: 1.91–303.74). FOG was associated with voluntary driving cessation in patients with PD without dementia or severe motor impairment. Physicians should consider providing extensive social support to maintain patients’ mobility and independence, especially if the patients have these clinical factors.
Platelet P2Y12 Inhibitor in the Treatment and Prevention of Migraine: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
There have been speculation and research linking migraine with abnormalities of platelet aggregation and activation. The role of the P2Y12 platelet inhibitor in the treatment of migraine has not been established. We aim to evaluate the efficacy of the platelet P2Y12 inhibitor in the treatment of migraine and prevention of new-onset migraine headache (MHA) following transcatheter atrial septal defect closure (ASDC). We searched the PubMed, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library databases for relevant studies. The primary outcomes were the headache responder rate and the rate of new-onset migraine attacks following ASDC. Four studies for a total of 262 migraine patients with or without patent foramen ovale (PFO) and three studies involving 539 patients with antiplatelet treatment in the prevention of new-onset migraine following ASDC were included. The pooled responder rate of the P2Y12 inhibitor for migraine was 0.64 (95% CI: 0.43 to 0.81). For patients who underwent ASDC, the use of antiplatelet regimens including the P2Y12 inhibitor, compared with regimens excluding P2Y12 inhibitor, resulted in a lower rate of new-onset migraine (OR: 0.41, 95% CI: 0.22 to 0.77, ). We concluded that the P2Y12 platelet inhibitor may have a primary prophylactic role in migraine patients with or without PFO and prevent new-onset MHA after ASDC. The responsiveness of the P2Y12 inhibitor could help select candidates who would benefit from PFO closure. It warrants further large-scale research to explore the role of the P2Y12 inhibitor, particularly in a proportion of migraine patients.
Medical Cannabis for Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome: An Open-Label Prospective Study
Objectives. Assessing the effectiveness and tolerability of medical cannabis (MC) treatment on Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS) patients. Methods. We report on an open-label, prospective study on the effect of MC on adult GTS patients. MC mode of use was decided by the treating neurologist and the patient. Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) content within MC product and monthly dose were titrated during the study. Following treatment initiation, patients were assessed after 4 and 12 weeks for efficacy, tolerability, and side effects. Results. Eighteen patients entered the study. Baseline Yale Global Tic Severity Scale- (YGTSS) Total (range 0-100) was . Three patients did not reach the end of follow-up period. The most common mode of administration was smoking (80%). Following twelve weeks of treatment, a significant 38% average reduction () of YGTSS-Total and a 20% reduction () of Premonitory Urge for Tic Scale (PUTS) were observed. Common side effects were dry mouth (66.7%), fatigue (53.3%), and dizziness (46.7%). Three patients suffered from psychiatric side effects including worsening of obsessive compulsive disorder (stopped treatment), panic attack, and anxiety (resolved with treatment modification). Six patients (40%) reported cognitive side effects regarding time perception, visuospatial disorientation, confusion, slow processing speed, and attention. Conclusions. MC treatment demonstrates good efficacy and tolerability in adult GTS patients. Predilection for smoking rather than using oil drops requires further comparative studies to evaluate the efficacy of each. Cognitive and psychiatric side effects have to be monitored and addressed.
Elevation of Plasma Homocysteine and Minor Hallucinations in Parkinson’s Disease: A Cross-Sectional Study
Purpose. Minor hallucinations (MHs) are the most common psychotic phenomena in Parkinson’s disease (PD), and it has important clinical and prognostic implications in PD. Plasma homocysteine (Hcy) has been reported to predict the outcome of PD; whether or not Hcy is associated with MH is not known. We aim to investigate the Hcy level and related factors in patients with PD and MH. Methods. We conducted a cross-sectional study and included 99 patients with PD, 34 with MH, and 65 without any hallucinations. The clinical and demographic data of the patients with and without hallucinations were compared. Hcy-related clinical factors were also analyzed. Results. The plasma Hcy level was higher in MH patients than in patients without hallucinations, and the result was more pronounced in male patients than in female patients. Differences were also observed when the groups were divided on the basis of levodopa equivalent daily dose and disease duration. The high Hcy concentration was correlated with some symptoms in patients with MH, including motor dysfunction and nonmotor symptoms, such as symptoms of the gastrointestinal tract, angiocarpy, sleep/fatigue, and poor visuospatial/executive function. Conclusions. Results indicated a higher plasma Hcy concentration in MH patients than in their counterparts and revealed that Hcy is associated with certain motor and nonmotor symptoms in patients with MH. Hcy may be a marker of MH and have important therapeutic implications in PD.
Analysis of Gut Microbiota in Patients with Exacerbated Symptoms of Schizophrenia following Therapy with Amisulpride: A Pilot Study
Evidence is mounting that the gut microbiome is related to the underlying pathogenesis of schizophrenia. However, effects of amisulpride on gut microbiota are poorly defined. This study was aimed at analyzing cytokines and fecal microbiota in patients with exacerbated symptoms of schizophrenia treated with amisulpride during four weeks of their hospital stay. In the present study, feces collected from patients with schizophrenia were analyzed using 16S rRNA pyrosequencing and bioinformatic analyses to ascertain gut microbiome composition and fasting peripheral blood cytokines. We found that patients undergoing treatment of schizophrenia with amisulpride had distinct changes in gut microbial composition at the genus level, increased levels of short-chain fatty acid-producing bacteria (Dorea and Butyricicoccus), and reduced levels of pathogenic bacteria (Actinomyces and Porphyromonas), but the level of Desulfovibrio was still high. We also found a significant downregulation of butanoate metabolism based on functional analysis of the microbiome. After treatment, elevated levels of interleukin- (IL-) 4 and decreased levels of IL-6 were found. Our findings extend prior work and suggest a possible pharmacological mechanism of amisulpride treatment for schizophrenia, which acts via mediation of the gut microbiome.
A Systematic Review on Serious Games in Attention Rehabilitation and Their Effects
Attention is a basic and main mental task and can play an important role in the functioning of other brain abilities such as intelligence, memory, learning, and perception, and its deficit occurs in 80% of patients with traumatic brain injury. The use of game-based tools for rehabilitation is rapidly expanding. Cognitive rehabilitation via video games is an emerging hot topic in cognitive science. Serious games serve a specific purpose in addition to entertainment. They can be more engaging than exercises since they replace reward and motivation systems with real-world motivations as a complement for rehabilitation activities. This study was aimed at identifying and categorizing serious computer games used for attention rehabilitation and evaluating their effects. Six electronic databases (Scopus, PubMed, ISI, Embase, IEEE, and Cochrane) were searched in August 2021. The search strategy consisted of three main concepts of “serious game”, “cognitive deficits”, and “cognitive rehabilitation”. The inclusion criteria were (1) journal articles, (2) English language, (3) being published in the last 10 years, (4) human participants, and (5) game-based intervention. In the 30 included studies, 22 unique games were utilized for attention rehabilitation. Lumosity (20%), Brain Age (Dr. Kawashima’s Brain Training) (10%), and MoHRS (6.66%) were the most common games among the studies. There were (57%) casual, (23%) action, (10%) simulation, and (10%) multiple genres. Of the 47 tools used in the studies, 5 utilized cross-modal oddball attention tasks, 4 utilized game performance, 3 utilized the paced auditory serial additional test (PASAT), and the rest employed other tools. A total of 73 outcome measures were related to attention, 42 measures did not have significant results, 30 were significantly improved, 1 was significantly deteriorated, and 4 articles did not have any specific measures for attention evaluation. Thus, the results revealed the positive effect of serious games on attention. However, issues such as absence of scientific teams, the variety of the disorders that cause defects, the variety of criteria, differences in measurements, lack of long-term follow-up, insufficient RCT studies, and small sample sizes should be considered when designing, developing, and using game-based systems to prevent bias.