A Patient Presenting with Lower Extremity Paralysis due to Acute Aortic OcclusionRead the full article
Case Reports in Emergency Medicine publishes case reports and case series related to prehospital care, disaster preparedness and response, acute medical and paediatric emergencies, critical care, sports medicine, wound care, and toxicology.
Case Reports in Emergency Medicine maintains an Editorial Board of practicing researchers from around the world, to ensure manuscripts are handled by editors who are experts in the field of study.
Abstracting and Indexing
Latest ArticlesMore articles
Cerebral Arterial Gas Embolism due to Helium Inhalation from a High-Pressure Gas Cylinder
Cerebral arterial gas embolism (CAGE) is a rare but serious cause for acute neurologic deficit that occurs most often in divers who breathe compressed gas at depth or iatrogenically from a variety of invasive medical procedures. We present a rare case of CAGE caused by inhaling helium from an unregulated, high-pressure gas cylinder. Following inhalation, the patient experienced loss of consciousness, neurologic deficits, pneumomediastinum, and pneumothorax requiring transfer and treatment at a hyperbaric facility with resulting resolution of neurologic symptoms. This case highlights the importance of rapid diagnosis and hyperbaric oxygen treatment (HBO), facilitated by close coordination among community emergency departments, pediatric tertiary care centers, hyperbaric facilities, and poison control.
A Case of Transvaginal Small Bowel Evisceration following Hysterectomy with Discussion of Emergency Department Diagnosis and Management
Transvaginal small bowel evisceration is a rare surgical emergency that requires urgent surgery to prevent bowel necrosis, sepsis, and death. It was first reported in 1864 by Hyernaux with less than 100 cases reported since the original publication. The overall mortality rate is reported as 5.6 percent. We present the case of a 49-year-old woman who presented to the emergency department with a chief complaint of moderate abdominal pain and vaginal bleeding for 1 hour. The patient reported that she underwent a robotic-assisted laparoscopic hysterectomy 11 weeks prior for uterine fibroids. Visual examination revealed a loop of the small bowel coming from the superior aspect of her vagina. Literature reviews have noted a higher incidence of dehiscence following robotic-assisted total laparoscopic hysterectomy. It is important for the emergency physician to make the diagnosis, initiate prompt consultation with departments of obstetrics and gynecology and general surgery, and treat for potential infection.
Intimo-Intimal Intussusception due to Stanford Type A Acute Aortic Dissection Presenting as Cerebral Infarction
Complete circumferential dissection is a rare clinical presentation of aortic dissection, wherein the dissected flap has the potential to cause intimo-intimal intussusception, which can lead to several catastrophic complications. We report a case of Stanford type A acute aortic dissection with intimo-intimal intussusception causing unstable cerebral ischemic symptoms. An 82-year-old man was taken to another hospital with severe intermittent dizziness. Head magnetic resonance imaging revealed multiple right-hemispheric cerebral infarctions. Computed tomography also showed a “missing flap,” indicating that the intimal flap was observed in the aortic root and arch but not in the ascending aorta. The patient was referred to our hospital for emergent surgery. Intraoperatively, the intimal tear was found to be circumferential, and the transected intima was folded and superimposed from the origin of the brachiocephalic artery to the aortic arch. Ascending aortic replacement and aortic valve replacement were performed; the postoperative course was good.
Hampton’s Hump: A Notable Radiographic Finding in a Patient with Infectious Endocarditis
Infectious endocarditis is a relatively uncommon entity that may present with a variety of clinical scenarios, ranging from a stable patient with nonspecific symptoms to a critically ill patient suffering from embolic disease. We report a case of an otherwise healthy 35-year-old female who presented to the Emergency Department with gradually progressive dyspnea, weight loss, and lower extremity edema. As part of her initial evaluation, a chest radiograph was performed and demonstrated Hampton’s Hump, a peripheral wedge-shaped opacity consistent with a possible pulmonary infarct. Further diagnostic investigation in the Emergency Department led to an unanticipated diagnosis of infectious endocarditis. This case serves as an important reminder that nonspecific diagnostic findings need to be appropriately considered in context and is a rare demonstration of Hampton’s Hump associated with infectious endocarditis.
Use of Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation in Patients with Refractory Cardiac Arrest due to Severe Persistent Hypothermia: About 2 Case Reports and a Review of the Literature
We report the cases of two patients experiencing persistent severe hypothermia. They were 45 and 30 years old and had a witnessed cardiac arrest managed with mechanized cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) for 4 and 2.5 hours, respectively. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation was used in both patients who fully recovered without any neurological sequelae. These two cases illustrate the important role of extracorporeal CPR (eCPR) in persistent severe hypothermia leading to cardiac arrest.
Acute Myocardial Infarction (AMI) Treated with Snake Antivenom
Cardiac complications following snakebites are uncommon but fatal. Here, we discuss a case of a snakebite that led to acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Forty-five-year-old male presented to the emergency room with snakebite on the right middle finger. He was given symptomatic treatment and admitted for observation. His vital signs and initial investigations were normal except for the white blood count that was high. During observation, he developed vomiting and bradycardia. He was diagnosed with a right bundle branch block on ECG. The patient developed chest pain after a few hours and was diagnosed with AMI on ECG. The toxicology team started antivenom therapy. His troponin kept rising initially but later started coming down without percutaneous intervention (PCI). He was treated successfully with antivenom therapy and discharged.