Case Reports in Neurological Medicine
 Journal metrics
Acceptance rate43%
Submission to final decision90 days
Acceptance to publication38 days
CiteScore-
Journal Citation Indicator0.180
Impact Factor-

Early and Delayed Rebound Intracranial Hypertension following Epidural Blood Patch in a Case of Spontaneous Intracranial Hypotension

Read the full article

 Journal profile

Case Reports in Neurological Medicine publishes case reports and case series focusing on diseases of the nervous system, as well as abnormal neurological function.

 Editor spotlight

Case Reports in Neurological Medicine maintains an Editorial Board of practicing researchers from around the world, to ensure manuscripts are handled by editors who are experts in the field of study.

 Abstracting and Indexing

This journal's articles appear in a wide range of abstracting and indexing databases, and are covered by numerous other services that aid discovery and access. Find out more about where and how the content of this journal is available.

Latest Articles

More articles
Case Series

Demyelinating Neurological Adverse Events following the Use of Anti-TNF-α Agents: A Double-Edged Sword

Background. Tumor necrosis factor antagonists (anti-TNF-α) are an established therapeutic option for several autoimmune and inflammatory bowel diseases. Despite their clinical effectiveness, neurological adverse events have been reported, and literature data suggest a potential role of anti-TNF-α in the induction of demyelination. Case Presentation. In this series, we present three cases of demyelination after the use of anti-TNF-α agents. The first case involved a 21-year-old man with HLA-B27 negative peripheral spondylarthritis who had been taking adalimumab for 2 years. He developed headache, urinary incontinence, and bilateral lower extremity numbness that progressed to the middle of the trunk for 2 days. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed multiple hyperintense enhancement lesions in the left paramedian anterior pons consistent with multiple sclerosis (MS). The second case included a 17-year-old woman who was on 2 years of adalimumab treatment for juvenile idiopathic arthritis and chronic anterior uveitis and developed new-onset dizziness and tremors. The clinical examination showed signs of cerebellar dysfunction. MRI findings were consistent with multiple sclerosis. The third case was a 34-year-old male who was on 5 years of infliximab treatment for ankylosing spondylitis when he developed left hand numbness and weakness. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis and MRI findings were consistent with demyelination. Discontinuation of tumor necrosis factor antagonists (anti-TNF-α) resulted in resolution of the symptoms with no recurrence in the first case, but there was evidence of recurrence in the other 2 cases, where one was managed with rituximab and the second one improved with pulse steroid therapy. Conclusion. Despite the small number of patients, our series adds to the growing body of evidence supporting a causal link between anti-TNF-α agents and demyelination. Thus, we can conclude that on suspicion of any neurological side effects, early discontinuation of the TNF-α blockers and requesting urgent MRI scan to confirm the diagnosis is of utmost importance.

Case Report

Magnetic Resonance-Guided Diagnosis of Spontaneous Intracranial Hypotension in a Middle-Aged Woman

Spontaneous intracranial hypotension (SIH) is a rare condition caused by a cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak. It is diagnosed by clinical features that include an orthostatic headache combined with imaging findings demonstrating intracranial hypotension and a CSF leak. We present the case of a 45-year-old woman with an orthostatic headache who was found to have a sagging brain with a downward-displaced cerebellum and pachymeningeal enhancement with gadolinium contrast. This was initially misidentified as a Chiari I malformation, but the constellation of symptoms and MRI findings were later recognized as characteristic of SIH. Diagnosis of SIH and a CSF leak was confirmed with CT myelography. She was treated with a nontarget epidural blood patch, and her symptoms resolved. An orthostatic headache, a sagging brain, and pachymeningeal enhancement on MRI are highly specific for SIH, raising suspicion for this uncommon and often missed diagnosis.

Case Report

A Case of Neuromyelitis Optica: Puerto Rican Woman with an Increased Time Lag to Diagnosis and a High Response to Eculizumab Therapy

A link between intractable hiccups, as the initial symptom, and a possible neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) diagnosis is confusing but vital and may not be made by health care providers (HCPs) if they are not aware of the 2015 NMOSD criteria. Early diagnosis and adequate treatment are essential to prevent disease progression. We report the case of a 46-year-old Puerto Rican female who presented intractable hiccups when she was 31 (in 2004). Almost 15 years passed since the initial symptom, and after two severe relapses, she received a formal NMOSD diagnosis in March 2019. Treatment started with rituximab 1000 mg IV in April 2019. However, a lack of response to treatment led to a switch to eculizumab therapy in August 2019. The patient had cervical and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) conducted in June 2020, which depicted a remarkable decrease in swelling and hyperintensity within the cervical spinal cord with no enhancing lesions when compared with the first MRI from February 2019. In addition, the patient suffered no new relapses, an improvement regarding disability, and a reduction of the cervical spinal cord lesion size. Nonetheless, this substantial decrease does not occur on all NMOSD patients, but more awareness of the disease is needed, especially in Puerto Rico. This case illustrates the efficacy of eculizumab therapy and the importance of differentiating the clinical, histopathological, and neuroimaging characteristics that separate demyelinating autoimmune inflammatory disorders, such as NMOSD and multiple sclerosis (MS).

Case Report

Leber’s Hereditary Optic Neuropathy Plus Causing Recurrent Myelopathy due to an MT-DN1 Mutation at G3635A

A 51-year-old man with known Leber’s hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) presented with worsening lower extremity weakness and numbness. Following an episode of myelopathy two years before, he had been ambulating with a walker but over two weeks became wheelchair bound. He also developed a sensory level below the T4 dermatome to light touch, pinprick, and vibration. MRI of his cervical and thoracic spine showed a nonenhancing T2 hyperintense lesion extending from C2 to T12. At his presentation two years earlier, he was found to have a longitudinally extensive myelopathy attributed to his LHON. Genetic testing revealed a 3635 guanine to adenine mutation. MRI at that presentation demonstrated a C1-T10 lesion involving the central and posterior cord but, unlike the new lesion, did not involve the ventral and lateral horns. Given the similarity to his prior presentation and a negative evaluation for alternative etiologies, he was thought to have recurrent myelopathy secondary to Leber’s Plus. To our knowledge, recurrent myelopathy due specifically to the G3635A mutation in Leber’s Plus has not been reported previously.

Case Report

Tumoral Calcinosis of the Cervical Spine Associated with a Pathologic Odontoid Fracture

Tumoral calcinosis involves focal calcium deposits in the soft tissues surrounding a joint and most commonly occurs in the hips and elbows, rarely in the cervical spine. Furthermore, it has not been known to be associated with pathologic fractures. To the best of our knowledge, our case report highlights the first case of a pathologic type II odontoid fracture associated with adjacent tumoral calcinosis, resulting in pain, dysphagia, and severe spinal stenosis. The patient underwent a posterior occipitocervical fusion and C1 laminectomy, along with planned tracheostomy and gastrostomy to avoid expected difficulty with postoperative extubation and dysphagia. Additionally, we present a review of existing literature on tumoral calcinosis in the upper cervical spine.

Case Report

A Case of Carbamazepine-Induced Aggravation of Self-Limited Epilepsy with Centrotemporal Spikes Epilepsy and Valproate-Induced Hyperammonemic Encephalopathy in a Child with Heterozygous Gene Variant of Carbomoyl Phosphatase Synthetase Deficiency

Antiepileptics drugs are the mainstay of the management of epilepsy in children. Sodium valproate (VPA) and carbamazepine (CBZ) are widely used medications in childhood epilepsy. Hyperammonemia has been described as a known side effect of valproate therapy. It is known that VPA-associated HA is common among patients who hold genetic mutations of the carbomoyl phosphatase synthase 1 gene (CPS1). Aggravation of self-limited epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes (SLECTS) is a rare side effect of CBZ. Here, we present a child who had CBZ-induced aggravation of rolandic epilepsy and VPA-induced HA encephalopathy in the background of an unrecognised heterozygous gene variant of CPS1. An 8-year-old boy with SLECTS presented with a history of abnormal behaviours and drowsiness. He was apparently well until six years when he developed seizures in favour of rolandic epilepsy. His electroencephalogram (EEG) showed bilateral predominantly on the right-sided central-temporal spikes and waves. The diagnosis of SLECTS was made, and he was commenced on CBZ. Though he showed some improvement at the beginning, his seizure frequency increased when the dose of CBZ was increased. His repeat EEG showed electrical status in slow-wave sleep, and CBZ was stopped. Subsequently, he was started on VPA, and with that, he developed features of encephalopathy. He had elevated serum ammonia with normal liver functions. VPA was stopped with the suspicion of VPA-induced hyperammonemia. Tandem mass spectrometry did not show significant abnormality in the amino acid profile. Specific genetic analysis revealed a c.2756 C > T.p (Ser919Leu) heterozygote genetic mutation of the CSP 1 gene. This is a classic example where side effects of treatment determine the choice of antiepileptics drugs (AEDs) in childhood epilepsy. It is essential to keep in mind that SLECTS can be aggravated with certain AEDs, and VPA-induced HA in the absence of live failure could be due to underlying inherited metabolic disorders.

Case Reports in Neurological Medicine
 Journal metrics
Acceptance rate43%
Submission to final decision90 days
Acceptance to publication38 days
CiteScore-
Journal Citation Indicator0.180
Impact Factor-
 Submit

Article of the Year Award: Outstanding research contributions of 2020, as selected by our Chief Editors. Read the winning articles.